Super Typhoon Noru barrels towards Philippines

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Members of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office prepare rubber boats and life vests ahead of Super Typhoon Noru making landfall.

A super typhoon charged towards the Philippines Sunday and was on track to slam into the heavily populated main island of Luzon, forcing the evacuations of vulnerable communities on the coast and in Manila, authorities said.

Super Typhoon Noru was packing maximum sustained winds of 195 kilometers (121 miles) an hour after an unprecedented “explosive intensification”, the state weather forecaster said.

The storm, the strongest to hit the Philippines this year, is expected to continue strengthening as it makes landfall around 80 kilometers northeast of the sprawling capital Manila in the afternoon or evening.

“We ask residents living in danger zones to adhere to calls for evacuation whenever necessary,” Philippine National Police chief General Rodolfo Azurin said.

The Philippines is regularly ravaged by storms, with scientists warning they are becoming more powerful as the world gets warmer because of .

“The winds were fierce this morning,” said Ernesto Portillo, 30, who works as a cook in the coastal municipality of Infanta in Quezon province where the could make landfall.

“We’re a bit worried… We secured our belongings and bought a few groceries so we have food just in case.”

Weather forecaster Robb Gile said Noru’s rapid intensification as it neared land was “unprecedented”. The meteorology agency said its had increased by 90 kilometers per hour in 24 hours.

“Typhoons are like engines—you need a fuel and an exhaust to function,” said Gile.

“In the case of Karding, it has a good fuel because it has plenty of warm waters along its track and then there is a good exhaust in the upper level of the atmosphere—so it’s a good recipe for explosive intensification,” he said, using the local name for the storm.

In Manila, braced for the possibility of strong winds and heavy rain battering the city of more than 13 million people.

Forced evacuations have started in some “high risk” areas of the metropolis, officials said.

“NCR is prepared. We are just waiting and hoping it will not hit us,” said Romulo Cabantac, regional director for the civil defense office, referring to the National Capital Region.

Calm before the storm

Noru comes nine months after another devastated swathes of the country, killing more than 400 people and leaving hundreds of thousands homeless.

Ahead of the latest storm, residents in several municipalities in Quezon province were evacuated from their homes, according to the provincial disaster office.

In the neighboring province of Aurora, residents of Dingalan municipality were forced to seek shelter.

“People living near the coast have been told to evacuate. We live away from the coast so we’re staying put so far. We’re more worried about the water from the mountains,” said Rhea Tan, 54, a restaurant manager in Dingalan.

Tan said residents were securing the roofs of their houses and boats were being taken to higher ground while the weather was still calm.

“We’re even more anxious if the weather is very calm, because that’s the usual indicator of a strong typhoon before it hits land,” Tan added.

Noru could have wind speeds of up to 205 kilometers per hour when it makes landfall, the weather bureau said.

It is expected to weaken to a typhoon as it sweeps across central Luzon, before entering the South China Sea on Monday and heading towards Vietnam.

The weather bureau has warned of dangerous storm surges more than three meters high along the coast of Aurora and Quezon, including the Polillo islands, along with and landslides as the storm dumps heavy rain.

It could topple coconut and mango trees, and cause “severe losses” to rice and corn crops in the heavily agricultural region, while inundating villages.

The coast guard reported more than 2,500 people had been left stranded by ferry cancellations as vessels took shelter ahead of the . Dozens of flights in and out of Manila were also cancelled.

School classes and non-essential government services have been suspended for Monday.

The Philippines—ranked among the most vulnerable nations to the impacts of climate change—is hit by an average of 20 storms every year.



© 2022 AFP

Citation:
Super Typhoon Noru barrels towards Philippines (2022, September 25)
retrieved 26 September 2022
from https://phys.org/news/2022-09-super-typhoon-noru-barrels-philippines.html

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Future super cyclones would expose vastly greater numbers of people in most vulnerable parts to extreme flooding

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A new study has revealed super cyclones, the most intense form of tropical storm, are likely to have a much more devastating impact on people in South Asia in future years.

The international research, led by the University of Bristol, looked at the 2020 Super Cyclone Amphan—the most costly to make landfall in South Asia—and projected its consequences in different scenarios of sea level rise due to .

Its findings, published today in the Royal Meteorological Society journal Climate Resilience and Sustainability, showed if the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere continues at the same scale, more than two and a half times (250%) the population in India would experience flooding of greater than 1 meter, compared to the event in 2020.

Lead author Dann Mitchell, Professor of Climate Science at the University of Bristol, said: “South Asia is one of the most climate-sensitive regions in the world, with super cyclones causing tens to hundreds of thousands of deaths in historical cases. Comparatively, very little climate impact research has been done in South Asia, despite the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighting it as such a critical region.

“This study, in collaboration with local scientists, provides much-needed climate impact information in one of the most vulnerable regions in the world. It presents a critical piece of evidence in support of ramping down our to achieve the Paris Agreement climate goals, where other lines of evidence all too often focus on where impacts are lower, and adaptation is more easily achievable.”

The researchers, which included scientists from Bangladesh, used sophisticated climate model projections to anticipate the scale of those affected by cyclones in the rest of this century.

Although the increasing numbers of people at risk is anticipated to be more modest in Bangladesh, estimated to rise by 60% to 70%, this factors in declining coastal populations in future. Encouragingly, the research team went on to show if the Paris Agreement climate goals of 2 degrees Celsius warming above pre-industrial levels are adhered to, population exposures to flooding dropped close to zero there.

But even in this warming scenario, the exposures in India still showed an alarming increase of between 50% to 80% are expected to experience flooding in future.

The main objective of the Paris Agreement, a global framework to tackle , is to hold the global average to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and endeavor to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.

Saiful Islam, Professor of Hydrology at the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), and contributing author of the study, said: “The latest IPCC report has mentioned with high confidence that tropical cyclones with higher intense categories will be more frequent in the future. This study shows that population exposure in Bangladesh and India will be increased up to 200% in the future for extreme storm surge flooding (greater than 3 meters) from intense cyclones under high emission scenarios. Hence, a strong, rapid and sustained greenhouse gas reduction is essential to achieve goals of the Paris Agreement and to reduce losses and damages of highly vulnerable countries like Bangladesh.”



More information:
‘Increased population exposure to Amphan-scale cyclones under future climates’, Climate Resilience and Sustainability (2022).

Citation:
Future super cyclones would expose vastly greater numbers of people in most vulnerable parts to extreme flooding (2022, May 9)
retrieved 10 May 2022
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Hexbyte Glen Cove ‘Super jelly’ can survive being run over by a car

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: Zehuan Huang

Researchers have developed a jelly-like material that can withstand the equivalent of an elephant standing on it, and completely recover to its original shape, even though it’s 80% water.

The soft-yet-strong material, developed by a team at the University of Cambridge, looks and feels like a squishy jelly, but acts like an ultra-hard, shatterproof glass when compressed, despite its high water content.

The non-water portion of the material is a network of polymers held together by reversible on/off interactions that control the material’s . This is the first time that such significant resistance to compression has been incorporated into a .

The ‘super jelly’ could be used for a wide range of potential applications, including soft robotics, bioelectronics or even as a cartilage replacement for biomedical use. The results are reported in the journal Nature Materials.

The way materials behave—whether they’re soft or firm, brittle or strong—is dependent upon their molecular structure. Stretchy, rubber-like hydrogels have lots of interesting properties that make them a popular subject of research—such as their toughness and self-healing capabilities—but making hydrogels that can withstand being compressed without getting crushed is a challenge.







Credit: University of Cambridge

“In order to make materials with the mechanical properties we want, we use crosslinkers, where two are joined through a chemical bond,” said Dr. Zehuan Huang from the Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, the study’s first author. “We use reversible crosslinkers to make soft and stretchy hydrogels, but making a hard and compressible hydrogel is difficult and designing a material with these properties is completely counterintuitive.”

Working in the lab of Professor Oren Scherman, who led the research, the team used barrel-shaped molecules called cucurbiturils to make a hydrogel that can withstand compression. The cucurbituril is the crosslinking molecule which holds two guest molecules in its cavity—like a molecular handcuff. The researchers designed guest molecules that prefer to stay inside the cavity for longer than normal, which keeps the polymer network tightly linked, allowing for it to withstand compression.

“At 80% water content, you’d think it would burst apart like a water balloon, but it doesn’t: it stays intact and withstands huge compressive forces,” said Scherman, Director of the University’s Melville Laboratory for Polymer Synthesis. “The properties of the hydrogel are seemingly at odds with each other.”

“The way the hydrogel can withstand compression was surprising, it wasn’t like anything we’ve seen in hydrogels,” said co-author Dr. Jade McCune, also from the Department of Chemistry. “We also found that the compressive strength could be easily controlled through simply changing the chemical structure of the guest molecule inside the handcuff.”

To make their glass-like hydrogels, the team chose specific guest molecules for the handcuff. Altering the molecular structure of guest molecules within the handcuff allowed the dynamics of the material to ‘slow down’ considerably, with the mechanical performance of the final hydrogel ranging from rubber-like to glass-like states.

Credit: Zehuan Huang

“People have spent years making rubber-like hydrogels, but that’s just half of the picture,” said Scherman. “We’ve revisited traditional polymer physics and created a new class of materials that span the whole range of material properties from rubber-like to glass-like, completing the full picture.”

The researchers used the material to make a pressure sensor for real-time monitoring of human motions, including standing, walking and jumping.

“To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that glass-like hydrogels have been made. We’re not just writing something new into the textbooks, which is really exciting, but we’re opening a new chapter in the area of high-performance soft materials,” said Huang.

Researchers from the Scherman lab are currently working to further develop these glass-like materials towards biomedical and bioelectronic applications in collaboration with experts from engineering and materials science. The research was funded in part by the Leverhulme Trust and a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellowship.



More information:
Zehuan Huang et al, Highly compressible glass-like supramolecular polymer networks, Nature Materials (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41563-021-01124-x

Citation:
‘Super jelly’ can survive being run over by a car (2021, November 25)
retrieved 26 November 2021
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Hexbyte Glen Cove Super typhoon batters Philippines; 1 million in shelters thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Super typhoon batters Philippines; 1 million in shelters

Hexbyte Glen Cove

by Jim Gomez and Joeal Calupitan

Floodwaters pass by Cagsawa ruins, a famous tourist spot in Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hit the area Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Alejandro Miraflor)

A super typhoon blew into the eastern Philippines with disastrous force Sunday, killing at least 10 people and triggering volcanic mudflows that engulfed about 150 houses before weakening as it blew away from the country, officials said.

Typhoon Goni blasted into the eastern island province of Catanduanes at dawn from the Pacific with sustained winds of 225 kilometers (140 miles) per hour and gusts of 280 kph (174 mph), threatening some provinces still recovering from a deadly typhoon that hit a week ago.

Goni barreled through densely populated regions and threatened to sideswipe Manila, which shut down its main airport, but shifted southward Sunday night and spared the capital, the government weather agency said.

At least nine people were killed in the hard-hit province of Albay, including a father and son. Villagers fled to safety as the typhoon approached, but the two apparently stayed put in the community in Guinobatan town where about 150 houses were inundated by volcanic mudflow.

“The child was found 15 kilometers (9 miles) away,” Albay Gov. Al Francis Bichara told DZMM radio, adding that the boy was swept away by mudflows and found in the next town.

He did not say whether there were any other residents trapped by the rampaging mudflows in the community and added that downed communications made it hard for people to communicate. The Office of Civil Defense reported that three Guinobatan residents were missing, but it was not immediately clear if they were from the mudflow-hit community.

An All-Terrain Vehicle is toppled by strong winds and floods from Typhoon Goni as it hits Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)

The other deaths in Albay included a villager who was pinned by a fallen tree. One person was killed in Catanduanes province.

Ricardo Jalad, who heads the government’s disaster-response agency, had feared that the typhoon could wreak major damage due to its enormous force. The Philippine weather agency reinforced those concerns, saying that within 12 hours after the typhoon’s landfall, people could face “catastrophic, violent winds and intense to torrential rainfall.”

Residents were warned of possible landslides, massive flooding, storm surges of up to 5 meters (16 feet) and powerful winds that can blow away shanties. But after hitting a mountain range and repeatedly slamming into coastal provinces, the typhoon gradually weakened, although it remained potentially deadly as it blew out into the South China Sea, forecasters said.

In this photo provided by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, debris from a damaged structure at the Naga airport in Naga city, central Philippines, as Typhoon Goni hits the country Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon has slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds, knocking down power in several towns and prompting the evacuation of about a million people in its projected path. (Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines via AP)

One of the most powerful typhoons in the world this year, Goni evoked memories of Typhoon Haiyan, which left more than 7,300 people dead or missing, flattened entire villages, swept ships inland and displaced more than 5 million in the central Philippines in November 2013.

Manila’s main airport was ordered shut down for 24 hours from Sunday to Monday, and airlines canceled dozens of international and domestic flights. Commuter train services were also suspended and a no-sail policy restriction was imposed by the coast guard due to initial fear over the typhoon’s threatening power. The military and national police, along with the coast guard, were put on full alert.

Jalad said nearly a million people were preemptively moved into emergency shelters.

In a Manila gymnasium that was turned into an emergency shelter, COVID-19 outbreaks were an added worry of displaced residents. The Philippines has had more than 383,000 cases of the virus, the second-most in Southeast Asia behind Indonesia.

  • Residents walk along floodwaters in Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hit the area Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Alejandro Miraflor)
  • Rescuers carry the body of a man that drowned in floods as Typhoon Goni hit Guinobatan, Albay province, central Philippines, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • Electrical poles are toppled due to strong winds from Typhoon Goni in Daet, Camarines Norte province, central Philippines, Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Sharalaine Robles Gonzales)
  • A man looks as floodwaters inundate an area as Typhoon Goni hit Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • This photo provided by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines shows a damaged roof at the Naga airport in Naga city, central Philippines, as Typhoon Goni hits the country, Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon has slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds, knocking down power in several towns and prompting the evacuation of about a million people in its projected path. (Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines via AP)
  • Residents walk along floodwaters in Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hit the area on Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Alejandro Miraflor)
  • Residents stay inside an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Gonistart start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • This Saturday, Oct. 31, 2020, satellite image released by NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) shows a typhoon locally known as Goni moving around the Philippines. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with “catastrophic violent winds” early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport has been ordered closed, officials said. (NASA via AP)
  • Residents occupy an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • Residents take advantage of tents provided at an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • Strong waves batter the coast of Sorsogon province, central Philippines as a typhoon locally known as Goni hits the country on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • A resident carries her dog inside an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • Residents walk past a toppled structure as waves batter the coast of Sorsogon province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hits the country on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • Strong waves batter the coast of Sorsogon province, central Philippines as a typhoon locally known as Goni hits the country on Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • A rescuer carries a sick child as they evacuate residents living along a coastal community in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • A woman wearing a face mask to prevent the spread of the coronavirus walks as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni starts in Manila, Philippines on Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)

“We are scared—our fears are doubled,” said Jaqueline Almocera, a 44-year-old street vendor who took cover at the shelter.

The Philippines is lashed by about 20 typhoons and storms each year. It’s also located on the so-called Pacific “Ring of Fire,” where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common, making it one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries.



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Citation:
Powerful typhoon lashes Philippines, killing at least 10 (Update) (2020, November 1)
retrieved 2 November 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-11-super-typhoon-batters-philippines-million.html

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part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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