Hexbyte Glen Cove Discovery of the oldest plant fossils on the African continent thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Discovery of the oldest plant fossils on the African continent

Hexbyte Glen Cove

A small plant whose axes divide several times before bearing oval sporangia. Credit: Univeristé de Liège

The analysis of very old plant fossils discovered in South Africa and dating from the Lower Devonian period documents the transition from barren continents to the green planet we know today. Cyrille Prestianni, a palaeobotanist at the EDDy Lab at the University of Liège (Belgium), participated in this study, the results of which have just been published in the journal Scientific Reports.

The greening of continents—or terrestrialisation—is undoubtedly one of the most important processes that our planet has undergone. For most of the Earth’s history, the continents were devoid of macroscopic life, but from the Ordovician period (480 million years ago) green algae gradually adapted to life outside the aquatic environment. The conquest of land by plants was a very long process during which plants gradually acquired the ability to stand upright, breathe in the air or disperse their spores. Plant fossils that document these key transitions are very rare. In 2015, during the expansion of the Mpofu Dam (South Africa), researchers discovered numerous in geological strata dated to the Lower Devonian (420—410 million years ago), making this a truly exceptional discovery.

Cyrille Prestianni, a palaeobotanist at the EDDy Lab (Evolution and Diversity Dynamics Lab) at the University of Liège, explains: “The discovery quickly proved to be extraordinary, since we are in the presence of the oldest fossil flora in Africa and it is very diversified and of exceptional quality. It is thanks to a collaboration between the University of Liège, the IRSNB (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences) and the New Albany Museum (South Africa) that this incredible discovery could be studied. The study, which has just been published in the journal Scientific Reports, describes this particularly diverse fossil flora with no less than 15 species analysed, three of which are new to science. This flora is also particularly interesting because of the quantity of complete specimens that have been discovered. These plants are small, with the largest specimens not exceeding 10 cm in height. They are simple plants, consisting of axes that divide two or three times and end in reproductive structures called sporangia.”

Mtshaelo kougaensis is a plant that bears complicated sporangia gathered at the end of the axes. Credit: University of Liège

The fossil flora of Mpofu suggests what the world might have been like when the largest plants were no taller than a few centimeters and almost no animals had yet been able to free themselves from the aquatic environment. It provides a better understanding of how the Earth went from a red rock devoid of life to the green planet we know today. These , simple as they are, are a crucial step in the construction of the environments that hosted the first land animals, arthropods. They form the basis of the long history of life on Earth, which continues today from dense tropical forests to the arid tundra of the north.



More information:
Robert W. Gess et al, An early Devonian flora from the Baviaanskloof Formation (Table Mountain Group) of South Africa, Scientific Reports (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-90180-z

Citation:
Discovery of the oldest plant fossils on the African continent (2021, June 9)
retrieved 9 June 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-06-discovery-oldest-fossils-african-continent.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Oldest human traces from the southern Tibetan Plateau in a new light thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Oldest human traces from the southern Tibetan Plateau in a new light

Hexbyte Glen Cove

The excavation site Su-re is located immediately north of the Mount Everest-Cho Oyu massif (on the left) in the so-called Tingri graben at an elevation of 4,450 meters. Credit: Luke Gliganic

Stone tools have been made by humans and their ancestors for millions of years. For archaeologists, these rocky remnants—lithic artifacts and flakes—are of key importance. Because of their high preservation potential, they are among the most common findings in archaeological excavations. Worldwide, numerical dating of these lithic artifacts, especially when they occur as surface findings, remains a major challenge. Usually, stone tools cannot be dated directly, but only when they are embedded in sediment layers together with, for example, organic material. The age of such organic material can be constrained via the radiocarbon technique. If such datable organic remains are missing or if stone artifacts lack a stratified sedimentary context, but rather occur as scattered surface artifacts, numerical dating becomes very difficult or is simply impossible.

“The Earth’s surface is highly dynamic and erosion and redeposition of material, especially over long timescales, is common. A precise age determination of lithic artifacts that occur as surface finds has therefore hardly been possible so far. Many aspects of ancient human behavior have only been preserved as surface finds, hence cannot be dated precisely with currently available dating methods. By further developing the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating technique, we can now, for the first time, carry out precise, and direct age measurements on lithic artifacts. In our current study we used artifacts from an archaeological surface site in south-central Tibet,” explains Michael Meyer, head of the Luminescence Laboratory at the Department of Geology at the University of Innsbruck and one of the main authors of the study now published in the renowned journal Science Advances.

OSL dating is based on the measurement of light stored in natural minerals and is one of the most important absolute dating tools in archaeology and the earth sciences. “This dating method uses natural light signals that accumulate over time in natural dosimeters, such as quartz and feldspar grains that are important constituents of sediments, as well as rocks and lithic artifacts. These minerals can be imagined as miniaturized clocks. Each grain is a tiny clock that can be ‘read-out’ under controlled laboratory conditions. The light signal allows us to infer the age of the archaeological sediment layer or artifact. The more light, the older the sample,” says the geologist. “In this study, we have now taken a new approach and focused not on sediment grains of sand, but—for the first time—on stone artifacts themselves.”

Fieldwork on site on the Tibetan Plateau: sampling of surface artefacts under black lightproof cover. Credit: Michael Meyer

Quarrying activities more than 5,000 years ago

Due to its extreme environmental and climatic conditions the dry highlands of Tibet are considered to be one of the last regions on earth that were occupied by humans. When exactly peopling of this remote and rather extreme environments occurred has caused a lot of scientific debate over the course of the last decade. In 2017, Michael Meyer dated the famous human foot and hand prints of Chusang in the central part of the Tibetan plateau to an age between 8,000 and 12,000 years.

In the current study, Meyer and his team analyzed archaeological finds from southern Tibet in the Innsbruck OSL Laboratory: The excavation site Su-re is located immediately north of the Mount Everest-Cho Oyu massif in the so-called Tingri graben at an elevation of 4450 meters. Surface artifacts are particularly common in Tibet. To date them, the researcher used the so-called rock surface burial dating technique and applied it to lithic surface artifacts. This method determines the point in time when the stone artifact was discarded by humans and at least partly covered by earth.

“With our luminescence method, we can look inside the stone and create a continuous age-depth profile. The inside of a rock has never been exposed to sunlight, so we have a saturated luminescence signal there and an infinite high age. However, if the rock surface is exposed to daylight for a long enough time, the signal in the top millimeters or centimeters of the rock will be erased. This happens during knapping, when the stone tool is produced, and also during the subsequent artifact use by humans. When the artifact is then discarded and at least partially buried in sediment and shielded from light, the luminescence signal in this artifact surface recharges. By measuring this depth-dependent luminescence signal in the rock surfaces, we can calculate the age of the artifact discard, taking into account the dynamics of local earth surface processes. Such an approach allows us to date stone artifacts directly, even if they occur as surface finds,” Meyer explains.

The analyses on the artifacts from southern Tibet revealed an age between 5,200 and 5,500 years. “We assume that the artifact findings at Su-re are related to quarrying activities at this site.” Very old sites have been discovered in the central part of the Plateau, however, for southern sector of the Tibetan Plateau, Su-re is currently to oldest securely dated site.

For Michael Meyer, the analysis of these Tibetan artifacts is just the beginning: “This OSL-based method opens up new vistas in archaeological dating and holds great potential also for sites on other continents that preserve lithic artifacts in a favorable setting,” concludes the geologist.



More information:
L.A. Gliganic el al., “Direct dating of lithic surface artifacts using luminescence,” Science Advances (2021). advances.sciencemag.org/lookup … .1126/sciadv.abb3424

Citation:
Oldest human traces from the southern Tibetan Plateau in a new light (2021, June 2)
retrieved 2 June 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-06-oldest-human-

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Oldest piece of writing ever found in Israel identified on ancient shard of pottery thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Oldest piece of writing ever found in Israel identified on ancient shard of pottery

Hexbyte Glen Cove

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