Female urinary tract lactobaccilli can kill pathogenic bacteria

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Russia’s only female cosmonaut to travel to space in September

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Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

Russia’s sole active female cosmonaut, Anna Kikina, is due to travel to the International Space Station in September on a Soyuz rocket, the national space agency said Thursday.

Kikina, a 37-year-old engineer, will be only the fifth professional woman cosmonaut from Russia or the Soviet Union to fly to space.

Last year, the Russian Roscosmos said “our beauty” Kikina would fly aboard SpaceX’s Crew Dragon as part of a cross-flights deal between Roscosmos and NASA.

On Thursday, Roscosmos said that if the two countries finalise the deal, Kikina will fly to space with the Americans in August, while NASA’s Francisco Rubio will travel on a Soyuz.

But if the deal does not work out, she will travel to the ISS on a Soyuz rocket in September.

The last Russian woman to fly to space was Elena Serova, who spent 167 days aboard the ISS from September, 2014 to March, 2015.

Soviet Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space when she travelled into orbit on June 16, 1963.

Svetlana Savitskaya was the second woman in space, and the first woman to perform a spacewalk in July, 1984.

In October, Russia also sent to space an actress, Yulia Peresild, who spent 12 days on the ISS shooting scenes for a movie.

By comparison, more than 50 American women have travelled to space.

Roscosmos also said Thursday that three Russian cosmonauts—Oleg Artemyev, Denis Matveyev and Sergei Korsakov—will fly to the ISS in March.

“For the first time in the history of the ISS, the Soyuz crew will include three Russian professional cosmonauts,” the agency said.

A Roscosmos official said this was because a contract with NASA on joint flights was nearing its end.

“Talks are currently underway to extend the contract,” the representative told AFP.



© 2022 AFP

Citation:
Russia’s only female cosmonaut to travel to space in September (2022, January 20)
retrieved 20 January 2022
from https://phys.org/news/2022-01-russia-female-cosmonaut-space-september.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Female and young walruses depend on disappearing Arctic sea ice for food sources thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Female and young walruses depend on disappearing Arctic sea ice for food sources

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A new study shows that disappearing sea ice is a significant element of the food web supporting female walruses and their dependent young in the Arctic’s Chukchi Sea. Researchers were able to trace biomarkers that are unique to algae growing within sea ice to connect marine mammals with a food source that is rapidly diminishing in the face of climate change. Credit: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science/Lee Cooper

A new study shows that disappearing sea ice is a significant element of the food web supporting female walruses and their dependent young in the Arctic’s Chukchi Sea. Researchers were able to trace biomarkers that are unique to algae growing within sea ice to connect marine mammals with a food source that is rapidly diminishing in the face of climate change.

“This study builds on work we have been doing in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to show that these tracers of ice algae and phytoplankton can be used to monitor the ecosystem response to disappearing sea ice,” said lead study author Chelsea Koch of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. “Ongoing monitoring of these sea ice biomarkers in walruses and even other organism tissues in the region will potentially help us to identify how the system is responding to changing food sources at the base of the food web as a result of climate change.”

The marine ecosystem of the Pacific Arctic near Alaska is adapted to utilizing fat-rich foods derived from biological production in sea ice. Ice algae blooms lead to a pulse of high-quality food to the sea floor. This in turn supports high abundances of clams and other benthic organisms throughout the Bering and Chukchi Seas—and lots of food for walruses to eat.

However, the loss of seasonal sea ice poses a threat to Pacific walruses, particularly how they use sea ice for rest and to access and forage on these dense offshore clam beds. With the disappearance of sea ice in many recent years near Alaska, thousands of walruses are coming ashore in the late summer on coastal beaches that are distant from the most productive clam beds. Stampedes are also likely to occur with these massive gatherings, leading to additional mortalities.

Based on the migration patterns of adult females and juveniles moving north with the ice edge each spring, Koch and the research team expected to see higher signatures of ice algae in the walruses harvested from the Chukchi Sea. However, results from the northern Bering Sea revealed a more nuanced finding, aligning with the traditional local knowledge of subsistence hunters on St. Lawrence Island.

Walruses were evaluated for Endangered Species Act listing due to the decline of seasonal sea ice in the Arctic. They are also important in some Alaska Indigenous communities as a source of subsistence food.

“One of the interesting findings was that these sea ice biomarkers were consistently higher in the female walruses in the northern Bering Sea compared to the males. These markers are short-lived in walrus livers, on the order of days or maybe weeks. So we know this elevated sea ice signature in the females is not an accumulation from their previous years’ journey into the Chukchi Sea,” said Koch. Researchers were able to trace biomarkers using liver tissues from some animals that were harvested as part of subsistence hunting.

This provides supporting evidence that female foraging behavior differs from the males in the winter and spring months while in the Bering Sea.

The work was carried out in coordination with a number of partners in Alaska and also included scientists from Clark University and the Scottish Association for Marine Science. Samples from the Bering Sea were provided by the University of Alaska’s Museum of the North, who in turn received the samples as donations from subsistence hunters. Samples from the Chukchi Sea were collected by the North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management (NSB DWM) as part of their harvest and health harvest monitoring program. Co-author Dr. Raphaela Stimmelmayr of the NSB DWM emphasized that “without the support of the hunters of regional community-based harvest monitoring programs, important studies like this would not be possible.”



More information:
Chelsea W. Koch et al, Female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) show greater partitioning of sea ice organic carbon than males: Evidence from ice algae trophic markers, PLOS ONE (2021). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0255686

Citation:
Female and young walruses depend on disappearing Arctic sea ice for food sources (2021, August 19)
retrieved 19 August 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-08-female-young-walruses-arctic-sea.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair deal

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Female job seekers using less feminine language less likely to get hired, study finds thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Female job seekers using less feminine language less likely to get hired, study finds

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Credit: Anna Shvets/Pexels

Women applying to jobs in male-dominated fields often try to overcome sexism by altering their cover letters to sound less feminine. But that practice might actually be hurting their chances of landing a job, a new study out of U of T Mississauga reveals.

Examining real cover letters to a variety of actual and analyzing applications to an MBA program, Joyce He, a Ph.D. candidate at U of T’s Rotman School of Management, found that women applying for jobs in male-dominated fields would respond to anticipated bias by using less feminine language to deliberately manage gender impressions. While they did not use more masculine language, they did try to conceal their femininity.

That would mean avoiding words that are stereotypically associated with women, which include sensitive, interpersonal, empathetic, helpful, warm and friendly. Examples of words that people associate with masculinity, meanwhile, include competitive, ambitious, confident, outspoken and entrepreneurial.

Notably, words identified as masculine hold higher value in the business world. That’s why associations are made with respect to gender and probability of success, says Sonia Kang, an associate professor at U of T Mississauga’s Department of Management and co-author of the study published in Academy of Management.

“When we see those kinds of words, it’s a cue not only to the fact that this is going to be a man, but also this person is going to be better suited to this particular position,” explains Kang. “That’s why language in all these application materials is so important. They cue to more than just identity.”

He adds that research suggests women’s identity is devalued when they apply for male-dominated jobs and they tend to anticipate discrimination or bias in the .

“They need to hide the devalued part, the feminine side, which is why they use this strategy,” she says, adding that men do not engage in the same behavior when applying for female-dominated roles.

But these attempts by women applicants to manage gender impressions can actually backfire because they clash with deeply entrenched cultural stereotypes.

He explains that there’s an unspoken rule regarding how men and women should act. “Men should behave competitively and dominantly, and women should behave more friendly and communal,” she says. “When you go against the rules or expectations, women especially can receive this backlash or penalty.”

She notes that women who behave counter-stereotypically are seen as more competent but also less likable, which in turn means they are less likely to be hired or even promoted.

This is related to the double-bind women face, Kang continues. She explains that stereotypes suggest men should be in charge because they’re assertive and decisive and get things done. When women take on that role, they’re seen as competent but are less likely to be liked. At the same time, women contend with the stereotype that they should be more nurturing and communal. When women act in line with those gendered stereotypes, they end up being liked but are seen as less competent.

“You’re damned if you do, damned if you don’t,” Kang says, adding men don’t have to navigate the same no-win situation. “If (men) are super confident, people don’t care if they’re likable.”

He says that the onus shouldn’t be on women (or minorities) to try to navigate the different biases in the labor market. The onus should be on organizations to reduce bias, which is the root of the problem.

He is now shifting her research focus to design interventions that help de-bias the selection process, saying there’s promising new work focused on systemic problems that target the environment, which is a more powerful way to change behavior. That can include anonymized evaluations or reviewing applications in sets instead of individually.

But systemic solutions take a long time to implement and job seekers can’t wait.

Kang suggests forced to contend with existing biases in the labor market should approach job applications like an experiment and find what works for them and is successful. That might mean changing how different activities are presented or how a person writes about themself.

“The work really shows it doesn’t help to pretend to be something you’re not,” Kang says. “I know it sounds pithy but be yourself is the takeaway here.”



More information:
Joyce C. He et al. Covering in Cover Letters: Gender and Self-Presentation in Job Applications, Academy of Management Journal (2020). DOI: 10.5465/amj.2018.1280

Citation:
Female job seekers using le

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