Hexbyte Glen Cove Lemon trees showed less response to citrus greening disease pathogen than orange trees thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Lemon trees showed less response to citrus greening disease pathogen than orange trees

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Citrus greening disease was first discovered in Florida in 2005. Since then, production of oranges in the United States for processing has declined by 72 percent between the 2007-2008 growing season and the 2017-2018 growing season, primarily in Florida. The disease was discovered in California in 2012, and now the state is beginning to see a rapid increase of citrus greening disease.

As there is currently no cure for citrus greening disease, many growers are concerned about its rapid spread and many plant pathologists are focused on learning more about the complicated nature of this disease. To add to this growing body of knowledge about citrus greening disease, a group of scientists working in California, New York, and Washington compared the early responses of two , Lisbon lemon and Washington navel orange trees, to infection by Liberibacter asiaticus, the pathogen that causes citrus greening disease.

These scientists conducted a comprehensive molecular analysis that showed that Lisbon lemon trees had less of a molecular response to the pathogen than Washington navel orange trees. In part, this might be because leaves of infected lemons tended to accumulate micronutrients, which led to less of an impact on photosynthesis. Additionally, , important for plant defense, were upregulated in lemons.

“These results may be important for developing varieties of citrus that are more tolerant or perhaps resistant to the HLB pathogen,” said Carolyn Slupsky, a UC Davis-based systems biologist involved with the research. “Our research highlights some key features that differentiate more tolerant from more susceptible varieties of citrus and may be used to develop new cultivars that are resistant to the effects of this pathogen.”

This study is the first to analyze the impact of the pathogen on citrus metabolism prior to symptom development. “Understanding early response is important,” added Slupsky. “As it may also help in developing technologies to detect the disease earlier.”

More information:
Elizabeth L. Chin et al, Multi-omics Comparison Reveals Landscape of Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis Response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, PhytoFrontiers (2021). DOI: 10.1094/PHYTOFR-09-20-0018-R

Provided by
American Phytopathological Society

Lemon trees showed less response to citrus greening disease pathogen than orange trees (2021, May 12)
retrieved 13 May 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-05-lemon-trees-response-citrus-greening.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Southern France set to sizzle due to climate change thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Southern France set to sizzle due to climate change

Hexbyte Glen Cove

If carbon pollution continues unabated, average annual temperatures across France will, by century’s end, soar 4.5C above pre-industrial levels

That dream house in southern France that so many fantasise about is going to become uncomfortably hot in coming decades, according to new climate change projections Monday by the country’s national weather service.

Even if humanity manages to modestly reduce greenhouse gas emissions—which so far has only happened during a raging pandemic or a —France as a whole is on track to heat up nearly three degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by about 2070, Meteo France said in a report.

And if carbon pollution continues unabated, average annual temperatures across the nation will, by century’s end, soar 4.5C beyond that benchmark.

That is verging on an unliveable world, a raft of climate studies have shown.

With just over 1C of warming so far, the planet has seen a sharp crescendo in deadly extreme weather, including heatwaves and megastorms made more destructive by rising seas.

The 2015 Paris climate treaty set a goal of capping global warming at below 2C, and 1.5C if possible.

Earlier climate models have predicted that France and the Mediterranean basin will be hit especially hard by heatwaves along with declining rainfall, and that reality has begun to bite.

In the summer of 2019, temperatures in picturesque wine country north of the coastal city of Montpellier reached a sizzling 46C, a national record. Paris was only a few degrees cooler.

Global warming is going to his the Mediterranean Rim especially hard, including southern France, according to climate projections

More heatwaves, less snow

This and other heatwaves “were a direct consequence of climate change,” said Meteo France CEO Virginie Schwarz in a statement.

“All observations made across the planet confirm an unprecedented acceleration of climate change.”

The 100-page report looked at how three different carbon pollution scenarios could shape France’s climate future: a drastic reduction in coupled with the large-scale removal of CO2 from the air; a reckless ramping up of the fossil fuel use which caused the problem to begin with; and a path somewhere between these increasingly unlikely extremes.

Meteo France climatologists, on the frontlines of global climate science, also zoomed in with an unprecedented resolution of 10 square kilometres, making it possible to distinguish micro-regions.

Global projections, by contrast, divvy up the planet into pieces 10 to 15 times that size.

The middle-of-the-road scenario, known as RCP4.5, will see an additional 10 to 15 days of extreme heat per year towards the end of the century. Periods of drought will expand by about 30 percent.

In the worst-case scenario—which scientists cannot exclude—southern France could experience one or two months of continuous heatwaves by 2100.

Eight consecutive days of above 40C weather in 2003 caused at least 15,000 heat-related deaths France, especially among the elderly.

The new report said high mountain regions will see the most dramatic hike in temperatures, up to 6C or 7C above levels at the start of this century.

Even in the less dire RCP4.5 projections, the number of days with at least half-a-metre of fresh snow will drop by half in the Pyrenees and southern Alps, shortening ski seasons in both mountain ranges.

© 2021 AFP

Southern France set to sizzle due to climate change (2021, February 1)
retrieved 2 February 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-02-southern-france-sizzle-due-climate.html

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