Hexbyte Glen Cove First academic research paper co-published on Instagram shows legacy of one of Algeria's most influential modern artists thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove First academic research paper co-published on Instagram shows legacy of one of Algeria’s most influential modern artists

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

The first research to be simultaneously co-published in an academic journal and on Instagram shows the lasting legacy of one of Algeria’s most influential modern artists.

The painter Mohammed Racim is generally known for his depictions of historical scenes produced in the colonial era. Such work has been used to illustrate book covers, tourist brochures and postage stamps, and has generally been seen as backward-looking and artistically conservative.

Using Instagram has allowed Professor William Gallois, from the University of Exeter, to publish almost 200 high-quality colour images with his academic article to illustrate the meaning and aesthetic value of Racim’s work.

The research is published in the American Historical Review, where there is a QR code to the Instagram account showing the images and article together.

Because much of Racim’s work was treated as having no intrinsic value, little effort was made to record and analyse its presence in the world. Professor Gallois hopes his research will counter this loss of cultural memory.

The rare pictures shown as part of the article are from Professor Gallois’ own archive of 10,000 photographs, postcards, advertisements, cigarette papers and other forms of ephemera, collected over the past decade.

Professor Gallois said: “Instagram is a great platform to show an unlimited number of high quality images, reach people across the world and potentially younger audiences too. There are already a huge number of people consuming research via Twitter, but Instagram is a place where I believe more productive and positive discussions can take place.

“The editors of the American Historical Review deserve credit for their willingness to innovate; they have been really good partners on this endeavour. I am enthused about the use of Instagram as a resource. The medium has given me the ability to present this research in the way I really wanted. I think Instagram will become a significant place for academic discussion to happen in the future.”

There are an increasing number of accounts on Instagram which catalogue, archive and critique images made by both indigenous and colonial groups during periods of imperial rule in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia—work previously ignored, erased or misunderstood—which have tens of thousands of engaged followers.

Mohammed Racim, who lived from 1896 to 1975, was the son and nephew of two of its most significant makers of Islamic art. His brother Omar was jailed from 1913 until 1921 for the seditious distribution and production of Islamist literature.

During the early part of his career Racim lived in Paris, working as an artist for the publisher Éditions Piazza. At this time he began to create his own works on canvas, illuminated miniatures in a style dominant in the Persianate and Ottoman worlds, which were admired by painters and patrons in France and north Africa. The pictures depict Algiers as a pre-colonial urban idyll, as well as historic characters such as the Barberousse brothers who had successfully defended the city against European invaders.

On his return to Algiers in 1932 Racim would go on to exhibit a small number of other miniatures, whilst working primarily as a teacher of the traditional arts. These thirty or so miniatures have been in more or less constant circulation since, serving as illustrations for book covers, tourist brochures, postage stamps and other icons of everyday design.

Professor Gallois’ research shows how the un-modern form of Racim’s work also effectively neutered any potential for the paintings to be seen as politically defiant.

Nathan Draluck, Managing Editor of the American Historical Review, said: “This was an exciting challenge, because we had to think about the best way—in the confines of a print journal—to best direct readers to William’s fascinating and, frankly, cool Instagram page—which is itself the actual “article.”

Alex Lichtenstein, Editor of the American Historical Review, said: “When William came to me with the idea of presenting his research on Mohammed Racim in the form of an Instagram post, I confess I was sceptical. But I have been keen to experiment, so we went with it. Peer review and production posed some challenges, but in the end I think the result is rigorous, fascinating, and widely accessible. Moreover, the content matches the form—that is, William uses the life of Racim to ask probing questions about the nature of history and representation. He asks us to contemplate “learning to read a text whose significance was not seen in the moment in which it was made”—I like to think the same can be said of using a popular social media platform to present historical scholarship.”

The first research to be simultaneously co-published in an and on Instagram shows the lasting legacy of one of Algeria’s most influential modern artists.

The painter Mohammed Racim is generally known for his depictions of historical scenes produced in the colonial era. Such work has been used to illustrate book covers, tourist brochures and postage stamps, and has generally been seen as backward-looking and artistically conservative.

Using Instagram has allowed Professor William Gallois, from the University of Exeter, to publish almost 200 high-quality colour images with his academic article to illustrate the meaning and aesthetic value of Racim’s work.

The research is published in the American Historical Review, where there is a QR code to the Instagram account showing the images and article together.

Because much of Racim’s work was treated as having no intrinsic value, little effort was made to record and analyse its presence in the world. Professor Gallois hopes his research will counter this loss of cultural memory.

The rare pictures shown as part of the article are from Professor Gallois’ own archive of 10,000 photographs, postcards, advertisements, cigarette papers and other forms of ephemera, collected over the past decade.

Professor Gallois said: “Instagram is a great platform to show an unlimited number of high quality images, reach people across the world and potentially younger audiences too. There are already a huge number of people consuming research via Twitter, but Instagram is a place where I believe more productive and positive discussions can take place.

“The editors of the American Historical Review deserve credit for their willingness to innovate; they have been really good partners on this endeavour. I am enthused about the use of Instagram as a resource. The medium has given me the ability to present this research in the way I really wanted. I think Instagram will become a significant place for academic discussion to happen in the future.”

There are an increasing number of accounts on Instagram which catalogue, archive and critique images made by both indigenous and colonial groups during periods of imperial rule in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia—work previously ignored, erased or misunderstood—which have tens of thousands of engaged followers.

Mohammed Racim, who lived from 1896 to 1975, was the son and nephew of two of its most significant makers of Islamic art. His brother Omar was jailed from 1913 until 1921 for the seditious distribution and production of Islamist literature.

During the early part of his career Racim lived in Paris, working as an artist for the publisher Éditions Piazza. At this time he began to create his own works on canvas, illuminated miniatures in a style dominant in the Persianate and Ottoman worlds, which were admired by painters and patrons in France and north Africa. The pictures depict Algiers as a pre-colonial urban idyll, as well as historic characters such as the Barberousse brothers who had successfully defended the city against European invaders.

On his return to Algiers in 1932 Racim would go on to exhibit a small number of other miniatures, whilst working primarily as a teacher of the traditional arts. These thirty or so miniatures have been in more or less constant circulation since, serving as illustrations for book covers, tourist brochures, postage stamps and other icons of everyday design.

Professor Gallois’ research shows how the un-modern form of Racim’s work also effectively neutered any potential for the paintings to be seen as politically defiant.

Nathan Draluck, Managing Editor of the American Historical Review, said: “This was an exciting challenge, because we had to think about the best way—in the confines of a print journal—to best direct readers to William’s fascinating and, frankly, cool Instagram page—which is itself the actual “article.”

Alex Lichtenstein, Editor of the American Historical Review, said: “When William came to me with the idea of presenting his research on Mohammed Racim in the form of an Instagram post, I confess I was sceptical. But I have been keen to experiment, so we went with it. Peer review and production posed some challenges, but in the end I think the result is rigorous, fascinating, and widely accessible. Moreover, the content matches the form—that is, Wil

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Plants can be larks or night owls just like us thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Plants can be larks or night owls just like us

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Dr Hannah Rees, postdoctoral scientist at the Earlham Institute, UK. Credit: Earlham Institute

Plants have the same variation in body clocks as that found in humans, according to new research that explores the genes governing circadian rhythms in plants.

The research shows a single letter change in their DNA code can potentially decide whether a plant is a lark or a night owl. The findings may help farmers and crop breeders to select with clocks that are best suited to their location, helping to boost yield and even the ability to withstand .

The circadian clock is the molecular metronome which guides organisms through day and night—cockadoodledooing the arrival of morning and drawing the curtains closed at night. In plants, it regulates a wide range of processes, from priming photosynthesis at dawn through to regulating flowering time.

These rhythmic patterns can vary depending on geography, latitude, climate and seasons—with plant clocks having to adapt to cope best with the local conditions.

Researchers at the Earlham Institute and John Innes Centre in Norwich wanted to better understand how much circadian variation exists naturally, with the ultimate goal of breeding crops that are more resilient to local changes in the environment—a pressing threat with climate change.

To investigate the genetic basis of these local differences, the team examined varying in Swedish Arabidopsis plants to identify and validate genes linked to the changing tick of the clock.

Dr. Hannah Rees, a postdoctoral researcher at the Earlham Institute and author of the paper, said: “A plant’s overall health is heavily influenced by how closely its circadian clock is synchronised to the length of each day and the passing of seasons. An accurate body clock can give it an edge over competitors, predators and pathogens.

“We were interested to see how plant circadian clocks would be affected in Sweden; a country that experiences extreme variations in daylight hours and climate. Understanding the genetics behind body clock variation and adaptation could help us breed more climate-resilient crops in other regions.”

The team studied the genes in 191 different varieties of Arabidopsis obtained from across the whole of Sweden. They were looking for tiny differences in genes between these plants which might explain the differences in circadian function.

Their analysis revealed that a single DNA base-pair change in a specific gene—COR28—was more likely to be found in plants that flowered late and had a longer period length. COR28 is a known coordinator of flowering time, freezing tolerance and the ; all of which may influence local adaptation in Sweden.

“It’s amazing that just one base-pair change within the sequence of a single gene can influence how quickly the clock ticks,” explained Dr. Rees.

The scientists also used a pioneering delayed fluorescence imaging method to screen plants with differently-tuned circadian clocks. They showed there was over 10 hours difference between the clocks of the earliest risers and latest phased plants—akin to the plants working opposite shift patterns. Both geography and the genetic ancestry of the plant appeared to have an influence.

“Arabidopsis thaliana is a model plant system,” said Dr. Rees. “It was the first plant to have its genome sequenced and it’s been extensively studied in circadian biology, but this is the first time anyone has performed this type of association study to find the genes responsible for different clock types.

“Our findings highlight some interesting that might present targets for , and provide a platform for future research. Our delayed fluorescence imaging system can be used on any green photosynthetic material, making it applicable to a wide range of plants. The next step will be to apply these findings to key agricultural crops, including brassicas and wheat.”

The results of the study have been published in the journal Plant, Cell and Environment.



More information:
Hannah Rees et al, Naturally occurring circadian rhythm variation associated with clock gene loci in Swedish Arabidopsis accessions, Plant, Cell & Environment (2020). DOI: 10.1111/pce.13941

Citation:
Plants can be larks or night owls just like us (2020, December 19)
retrieved 19 December 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-12-larks-night-owls.html

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