Hexbyte Glen Cove Gender differences exist even among university students' wage expectations thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Gender differences exist even among university students’ wage expectations

Hexbyte Glen Cove

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Gender wage gaps are a well-documented issue, and expectations related to this phenomenon seem to be present even among university students discussing future employment, according to a study published June 2, 2021 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Ana Fernandes from the Berner Fachhochschule and the University of Fribourg and Martin Huber from the University of Fribourg, and Giannina Vaccaro from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

The is a well-established phenomenon in today’s , with elements both explainable (e.g. certain job paths being predominantly held by one gender) and as-yet unexplained. In this paper, the authors assessed the effect of gender on wage expectations in .

To gather their data, the authors surveyed a total of 865 students across two Swiss universities. The survey covered general demographic information; professional information, e.g. the type of job and workplace the student hoped to have after graduation and their expected wage (both directly after graduation and three years on); and , e.g. hopes for a future family and/or children, preferences between full- and part-time work in the presence of children, home location, etc. One version of the survey included a bar graph with information on monthly gross income in the private sector.

There was a gender wage gap even among expected wages for surveyed students: this gap was 9.7 percent directly following graduation, and 11.6 percent for wages three years afterward. When comparing expected wages from the students surveyed to averages of actual wages from comparable graduates, the authors found that both men and women were optimistic about their expected wages: on average, ‘ expected wages exceeded the actual wages of similar graduates by 13 percent, whereas female students’ expected wages exceeded the actual wages of similar graduates by 11.2 percent. Interestingly, for those students given the extra bar graph of gross income information, male students actually increased their average expected wages (incorrectly, based on the actual wages of similar graduates), while female students tended to decrease their average expected wages.

The authors note that including the personal and professional responses in their greatly reduced (by approximately 30 percent) the direct, unexplained effect of gender on wage expectations. Nevertheless, a non-negligible, statistically significant direct, unexplained effect of gender on wage expectations remains for most cases under several statistical models considered.

The authors add: “Males typically forecast higher future earnings than females. We find that a broad set of personal and professional controls—collected in an own survey of two Swiss institutions of higher education—largely accounts for those gender differences in expectations across most empirical specifications.”

More information:
Fernandes A, Huber M, Vaccaro G (2021) Gender differences in wage expectations. PLoS ONE 16(6): e0250892. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250892

Gender differences exist even among university students’ wage expectations (2021, June 2)
retrieved 2 June 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-06-gender-differences-university-students-wage.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Turkish lake with likely clues to Mars gains unwanted fame thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Turkish lake with likely clues to Mars gains unwanted fame

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Lake Salda in southwest Turkey is at risk after the site was picked to create more green spaces for the public

Boasting azure waters and white sands, a Turkish lake that NASA thinks hides secrets about Mars threatens to become too popular for its own good.

Lake Salda gained international renown when US scientists began poking around in preparation for the Perseverance rover mission, which has been beaming back videos from the Red Planet since February.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory even posted a picture of the pristine lake on its site before touchdown, saying it might resemble what an “aqueous” Mars looked like billions of years ago.

Now, the 4,370-hectare (16.9-square mile) lake in Turkey’s southwest has been picked by President Recep Tayyip Erdogan as part of a project to create more green spaces for public use.

The news spells disaster for local activists and lawyers, who fear that the twin blows of NASA and Erdogan’s interest could open the floodgates to tourists.

Splashing around in its waters, the sea of humanity could destroy the very ecosystem that made the lake special in the first place, campaigners warn.

“The future of the lake is at risk if millions of people come,” said Lake Salda Preservation Association head Gazi Osman Sakar.

‘It’s alive’

The lake is most famous for the White Islands area with the brilliant sands, as well as endemic flora and fauna such as the Salda seaweed fish.

Activists fear the twin blows of NASA and development could open the floodgates to tourists at Lake Salda

There are also minerals of different origin. NASA thinks one of them, hydromagnesite, is similar to the carbonate minerals detected at Jezero Crater—a former lake on Mars that the rover is now exploring.

The hydromagnesite sediments along Lake Salda’s shoreline “are thought to have eroded from large mounds called ‘microbialites’—rocks formed with the help of microbes,” NASA said.

This all folds into the mystery about possible life on Mars, in some microbial form a very long time ago.

There are many tectonic lakes like Salda across the world.

But what makes Salda unique, geology engineer Servet Cevni said, is the lake’s transformation into a closed ecosystem with its own living mechanism.

“Because it’s alive, it’s so sensitive to outside interventions,” Cevni told AFP.

Yet that intervention is already on its way in the form of nine small buildings that have appeared near a planned People’s Garden by the lake.

Sakar said some of the white sand has already been moved from the White Islands area to another called People’s Beach for road construction.

“The project should be cancelled,” Sakar said. “The lake cannot be protected while it’s used.”

Graphic locating Lake Salda in Turkey studied by NASA scientists due to its similarity to Jezero crater on Mars, landing site of the Perseverance Rover looking for ancient signs of life.

Court battle

Swimming is forbidden at the White Islands but people are still able to take a dip in other parts.

Sakar’s association wants the lake off limits entirely for swimming to preserve its ecosystem. Instead, he proposes creating observation posts for visitors to see the lake.

“If single-cell organisms die, Salda is finished,” the engineer Cevni agreed. “Those White Islands won’t be renewed, that white structure won’t come together.”

The damage thus far can be recovered in 150 to 200 years if people do not destroy it further, Cevni said, adding: “If we do, it won’t ever recover.”

The Lake Salda Preservation Association has seen its legal bid to cancel the green spaces project rejected in court.

Sakar is appealing the ruling and also campaigning for UNESCO to put Salda on the world heritage list.

“Salda is dying,” Sakar said.

“If single-cell organisms die, Salda is finished,” warns geology engineer Servet Cevni

But campaigners are not the only ones expressing concern.

Aysel Cig, a goat-herder who lives in a village close to the lake, said things were more pleasant before Salda gained its fame.

“Our lake, our village was much cleaner three, five years ago,” she said.

Responsible tourism

But besides dirt and foreign organisms, tourists also bring cash, which the locals around Lake Salda welcome.

Suleyman Kilickan, 60, worked in a cafe with plenty of outdoor seating by the lake that employed 30 people before the coronavirus pandemic hit.

Interest in the lake rose considerably with the NASA mission, Kilickan said, noting that most of his visitors were foreigners who appeared to be respectful of the lake.

“If there’s tourism, there’s life,” Kilickan said.

“I would encourage tourism,” he said, emphasising the importance of ensuring visitors act responsibly.

Interest in Lake Salda rose considerably with the NASA mission

The environment ministry said last month it would limit the number of visitors to the White Islands area to 570,000 a year.

Nearly 1.5 million people visited the lake in 2019, and 800,000 came last year during lulls in coronavirus restrictions.

But Nazli Oral Erkan, of the Burdur Bar Association’s Environment Committee, said the proposed cap was not enough to protect the lake.

“Salda is like a natural museum,” she said.

© 2021 AFP

Turkish lake with likely clues to Mars gains unwanted fame (2021, April 28)
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Hexbyte Glen Cove 'Explicit instruction' provides dramatic benefits in learning to read thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove ‘Explicit instruction’ provides dramatic benefits in learning to read

Hexbyte Glen Cove

The ability to read is foundational to education, but prolonged school closures and distance learning due to the pandemic have imposed unique challenges on the teaching of many fundamental skills. When in-person classes resume, many students will likely need a period of catch-up learning, especially those who lag behind in basic reading skills.

New research published in the journal Psychological Science shows that people who were taught to by receiving explicit instructions on the relationship between sounds and spelling experienced a dramatic improvement compared to learners who discovered this relationship naturally through the reading process. These results contribute to an ongoing debate about how best to teach children to read.

A team of researchers from Royal Holloway, University of London, tested both techniques on a group of 48 adults who, over an intensive two-week period, were taught to read a new language that was printed in unfamiliar symbols.

One half of the participants learned spelling-to-sound and spelling-to-meaning regularities solely through experience with reading the novel words during training. The other half received a brief session of explicit instruction on these regularities before training commenced. At the end of the two-week period, both groups were given reading tests to gauge how well they had learned the new language.

“Our results were really striking. By the end of the two weeks, virtually all learners who had received explicit instruction were able to read words printed in the unfamiliar symbols,” said Kathleen Rastle, a researcher at Royal Holloway and lead author on the paper.

In contrast, despite up to 18 hours of experience with the new language, less than 25% of the “discovery learners” reached the same standard, and some showed very poor learning.

“Reading is the foundation for children’s learning throughout their schooling; for this reason, the learning loss that we are seeing is very concerning and has the potential for lifelong consequences,” said Rastle. “The provision of evidence-based instructional methods has never been more important. Our research highlights the significance of explicit instruction in ensuring that all pupils have the opportunity to develop strong reading skills.”

More information:
Kathleen Rastle et al, The Dramatic Impact of Explicit Instruction on Learning to Read in a New Writing System, Psychological Science (2021). DOI: 10.1177/0956797620968790

‘Explicit instruction’ provides dramatic benefits in learning to re

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