Hexbyte Glen Cove Fast radio bursts shown to include lower frequency radio waves than previously detected thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Fast radio bursts shown to include lower frequency radio waves than previously detected

Hexbyte Glen Cove

A burst from the periodically active repeating fast radio burst source 20180916B arrives at the LOFAR telescope. The higher frequency radio waves (purple) arrive earlier than the lower frequency radio waves (red). The inset shows an optical image from the host galaxy of the fast radio burst source and the position of the source in the host galaxy. Credit: Futselaar / ASTRON / Tendulkar

Since fast radio bursts (FRBs) were first discovered over a decade ago, scientists have puzzled over what could be generating these intense flashes of radio waves from outside of our galaxy. In a gradual process of elimination, the field of possible explanations has narrowed as new pieces of information are gathered about FRBs—how long they last, the frequencies of the radio waves detected, and so on.

Now, a team led by McGill University researchers and members of Canada’s CHIME Fast Radio Burst collaboration has established that FRBs include radio waves at frequencies lower than ever detected before, a discovery that redraws the boundaries for theoretical astrophysicists trying to put their finger on the source of FRBs.

“We detected down to 110 MHz where before these bursts were only known to exist down to 300 MHz,” explained Ziggy Pleunis, a postdoctoral researcher in McGill’s Department of Physics and lead author of the research recently published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. “This tells us that the region around the source of the bursts must be transparent to low-frequency emission, whereas some theories suggested that all low-frequency emission would be absorbed right away and could never be detected.”

The study focussed on an FRB source first detected in 2018 by the CHIME radio telescope in British Columbia. Known as FRB 20180916B, the source has attracted particular attention because of its relative proximity to Earth and the fact that it emits FRBs at regular intervals.

The research team combined the capacities of CHIME with those of another radio telescope, LOFAR, or Low Frequency Array, in the Netherlands. The joint effort not only enabled the detection of the remarkably low FRB frequencies, but also revealed a consistent delay of around three days between the higher frequencies being picked up by CHIME and the lower ones reaching LOFAR.

“This systematic delay rules out explanations for the periodic activity that do not allow for the frequency dependence and thus brings us a few steps closer to understanding the origin of these mysterious bursts,” adds co-author Daniele Michilli, also a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Physics at McGill.



More information:
Z. Pleunis et al, LOFAR Detection of 110–188 MHz Emission and Frequency-dependent Activity from FRB 20180916B, The Astrophysical Journal Letters (2021). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abec72

Citation:
Fast radio bursts shown to include lower frequency radio waves than previously detected (2021, April 16)
retrieved 17 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-fast-radio-shown-frequency-previously.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove Colombia's apiarists say avocado buzz is killing bees thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Colombia’s apiarists say avocado buzz is killing bees

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Gildardo Urrego’s apiary in Colombia’s Antioquia Department produces honey flavored with pollen from nearby passion fruit orchards

For the second time in two years, Gildardo Urrego is scooping up piles of dead bees after an invisible evil invaded his hives in northwest Colombia, wreaking havoc among his swarms.

Urrego has no proof, but he suspects the culprit is pesticides which have been fuelling a commercial avocado and citrus boom in the country.

Hundreds of hives have been killed off in Colombia in recent years, and some investigations have pointed to fipronil, an insecticide banned for use on crops in Europe and restricted in the United States and China.

It is used to control all manner of insects, including ants and ticks, and has been blamed for several bee massacres around the world.

Urrego’s apiary in Colombia’s Antioquia Department produces honey flavored with pollen from nearby passion fruit orchards. In 2019, he lost 10 of his 19 hives.

This time, he said, a third of his 12 hives were wiped out—a loss of some 160,000 of the industrious little pollinators.

“There is a theory that, yes, this is due to poisoning, there are some crops around here that perhaps have not managed their agrochemicals well and so this area was affected,” he told AFP.

In recent years, bees in North America, Europe, Russia, South America and elsewhere have started dying off from “,” a mysterious scourge blamed partly on pesticides along with mites, viruses and fungi.

The UN warns that nearly half of insect pollinators, particularly bees and butterflies, risk global extinction.

Hundreds of hives have been killed off in Colombia in recent years, and some investigations have pointed to fipronil, an insecticide banned for use on crops in Europe and restricted in the United States and China

Free fertilization

About 1.4 billion jobs and three-quarters of all crops around the world, according to a 2016 study, depend on pollinators, mainly bees, which provide free fertilization services worth billions of dollars.

Some 300 kilometers (186 miles) south of Antioquia, in the Quindio Department, Abdon Salazar has no qualms pointing the finger at fipronil as he counts his losses.

“Over the last two years, we have calculated more than 80 million dead bees,” he said as he walked among the 300 vibrating hives of his business Apicola Oro (Golden Beekeeping).

“We are talking some 800 hives, 100,000 bees per , it is a very large quantity, an alarming quantity.”

Salazar and other beekeepers in the region are increasingly having to clear out mounds of dead bees from their apiaries which are surrounded by avocado and citrus plantations in an exceptionally fertile and biodiverse part of the world.

The government’s agriculture institute denies any link between the expansion of avocado crops and bee deaths

Toxic neighbors

In Quindio, hive collapse has coincided with the expansion of monoculture in recent decades, according to Faber Sabogal, president of the Asoproabejas beekeepers’ organization.

According to the local government, five bought large tracts of land in the region between 2016 and 2019 to profit from the growing global appetite for Hass avocados.

Exports skyrocketed from 1.7 tons in 2014 to 44.5 tons in 2019, and this year, Colombia became the largest supplier of the creamy, green delicacy to Europe.

But bees are the collateral damage, becoming contaminated as they buzz through pesticide-treated plantations looking for food, say beekeepers.

“They bring this poison to the hive and kill everyone else,” said Salazar.

Economic impediments

Asoproabejas members have videotaped dozens of mass bee die-offs in several regions of Colombia, mainly in the west.

Avocado farmers say their crops require intensive spraying as they are highly vulnerable to pests

Last year, the state-owned Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA) was notified by beekeepers of 256 suspected hive poisonings in Quindio alone.

Some 10 million insects were lost.

ICA regional manager Jorge Garcia said the body examined samples from six apiaries and found that “the fipronil molecule is one of the causes of mortality.”

The alert was raised with ICA headquarters in Bogota, which is working on a suspension order, he told AFP.

Withdrawing the poison altogether has been difficult “because the companies producing agrochemicals will be affected economically,” said Salazar.

Competing interests

Maria Latorre, spokeswoman for Colombia’s agrochemical union, said a fipronil ban would provoke “a very negative situation for the productive structure” of the 33 crops that rely on it.

The body denies that fipronil is harmful to bees, but said it would welcome a “review” of its use “on crops that have had incidents.”

But Fernando Montoya of the Colombian Hortofruticola Association, which represents crop growers, said the chemical could be replaced by “mushroom-based bioproducts,” insect traps and manual pest removal.

The ICA has denied any link between the expansion of avocado crops in Quindio and the recent decimation of bees.

But rather than risk losing it all, Apicola Oro, which produces some 36 tons of honey a year, decided to pack up and leave.

Salazar took most of his bees—some 1,200 hives—from Quindio to a remote place some 400 kilometers away.

He has managed to save his business for now, but worries about the future.

“The bee is a bioindicator. If bees are dying, what other insects beneficial to the environment… are dying?”.



© 2021 AFP

Citation:
Colombia’s apiarists say avocado buzz is killing bees (2021, February 26)
retrieved 27 February 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-02-colombia-apiarists-avocado-bees.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove Twitter quietly switches off HTTP connections to API thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Twitter quietly switches off HTTP connections to API

Hexbyte Glen Cove

If your Twitter API requests were having issues over the past couple of days, changing to an SSL connection should fix your problems.

In case you have not found yourself on Twitter’s dev site recently, the social network recently switched all its API traffic to require an SSL connection.

A notice on dev.twitter.com and a banner along the top of the site were the only notices that I saw, that everything you know about APIs and Twitter was about to change. Frankly, it was easy to miss if you hadn’t felt the need to poke around Twitter’s dev docs.

To compound the confusion, when a script now attempts to connect to Twitter’s API using a HTTP connection without SSL, all that is returned by the API is a “403: Forbidden” error.

For most use cases and frameworks, the change should only ne

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —