Hexbyte Glen Cove Scientists identify G-Exos as a nanocarrier for miRNA transfer to stimulate neural differentiation of stem cells

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into functional neural cells is of tremendous significance to treat neural diseases. However, the limited neural differentiation of BMSCs remains a major challenge. Recent studies suggest that miRNAs may play a crucial role in regulating the neural differentiation of stem cells as effective signaling molecules. Due to their unique physiochemical attributes, miRNAs cannot be efficiently delivered in vitro and in vivo, thus inhibiting the application and translation of miRNAs.

Peng Lihua at the Zhejiang University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences has led cutting-edge research into ginseng-derived exosomes (G-Exos) as a carrier for miRNA transfer in the neural differentiation of BMSCs. The research findings appear in a research article entitled “Plant Exosomes as Novel Nanoplatforms for MicroRNA Transfer Stimulate Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells in Vitro and in Vivo” in the journal Nano Letters.

In this study, researchers isolated Exos from the juice of ginseng and loaded chemokine and G-Exos onto photo-cross-linkable hydrogel to fabricate a convenient, safe and efficient multi-purpose wound regeneration gel dressing, thereby achieving the targeted recruitment and induced neural differentiation of .

“This study demonstrated that G-Exos, which could circumvent the limitations of conventional RNA transfer strategies, may well become an effective nanoplatform in transferring plant-derived miRNAs to mammalian stem cells for neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, thus holding great promise in neural regenerative medicine,” said Prof. Peng.



More information:
Xue-Han Xu et al, Plant Exosomes As Novel Nanoplatforms for MicroRNA Transfer Stimulate Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo, Nano Letters (2021). DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02530

Provided by
Zhejiang University

Citation:
Scientists identify G-Exos as a nanocarrier for miRNA transfer to stimulate neural differentiation of stem cells (2021, October 28)
retrieved 29 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-scientists-g-exos-nanocarrier-mirna-neural.html

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove 'Exciting biology' reveals central event of evolution of rhizobial endosymbiosis thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove ‘Exciting biology’ reveals central event of evolution of rhizobial endosymbiosis

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Root nodules, each containing billions of Rhizobiaceae bacteria. Credit: Public Domain

Legumes, unlike most land plants, can form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The anatomy of the nodule in legume plants was described in the 17th century, and nodule cells were found to host endosymbiotic rhizobia for nitrogen fixation in the 19th century.

The cortex is developmentally distinct from the cortex of non-legumes: It can de-differentiate in response to phytohormones or symbiotic signals from rhizobia, thereby enabling de novo organogenesis of nodules to accommodate nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Nevertheless, why symbiotic is restricted to relatively few plant species, mainly in legumes, has remained unknown.

In a study published online in Nature, a research group led by Prof. Wang Ertao from CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that the ancient SHORTROOT-SCARECROW (SHR-SCR) stem cell program in cortical cells of the legume Medicago truncatula specifies their distinct fate for novel nodule organogenesis.

To identify potential genetic pathway reprogramming events that underlie the cortical cell division response in legumes, the researchers generated EGFP-β-Glucuronidase reporters (promoter:EGFP-GUS) for M. truncatula and A. thaliana genes and found that the MtSCR reporter was highly expressed in M. truncatula endodermis, cortex and epidermis, which is in sharp contrast to A. thaliana AtSCR. Genetic data showed that nodule formations in scr and scr/scl23 mutants were greatly reduced and SCR expression in root cortex is required for cortical cell division during nodule initiation.

Besides, the researchers found that MtSHR1/2 mRNA expression is restricted to the stele, similar to the expression pattern of AtSHR in A. thaliana. Intriguingly, MtSHR-GUS fusion proteins accumulated GUS staining beyond the stele and endodermis, in the epidermis and cortex. Genetic data showed that cortical cell-specific accumulation of MtSHRs is required for cortical cell division during nodule initiation. Rhizobia spot inoculation and cytokinin treatment showed that cortical cell expressed MtSHR-MtSCR controls M. truncatula root cortical cells division ability.

Further studies revealed that rhizobial signals lead to the accumulation of MtSHR-MtSCR in cortical and nodule primordia. Ubiquitously overexpressed MtSHR in M. truncatula hairy roots promote cortical cell division and form pseudo-nodules without rhizobia inoculation. These data together demonstrate that the ancient SHR-SCR stem cell program specifies legume cortical cell fate for novel nodule organogenesis.



More information:
Wentao Dong et al. An SHR–SCR module specifies legume cortical cell fate to enable nodulation, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-3016-z

Citation:
‘Exciting biology’ reveals central event of evolution of rhizobial endosymbiosis (2020, December 10)
retrieved 11 December 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-12-biology-reveals-central-event-evolution.html

This d

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —