Hexbyte Glen Cove A sign the drought is easing: California officials to ship more water to farms, cities

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

State officials said Thursday they will increase deliveries to farms and cities that belong to the State Water Project—a sign that this winter’s rain and snow has eased drought conditions in California.

The Department of Water Resources said farm and municipal districts can expect to receive 15% of requested supplies this year from the state project, an elaborate network of dams and canals.

The announcement came weeks after the department announced an initial allocation of zero, saying it would only deliver enough water to meet “critical health and safety needs” to a handful of urban districts such as the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. It marked the first time in the State Water Project’s history that the initial allocation was zero.

December’s storms made the difference. San Luis Reservoir in Merced County, which plays a key role in feeding the San Joaquin Valley and Southern California, has added 310,000 acre-feet of water since Dec. 1. An acre-foot is 326,000 gallons.

Still, the reservoir is at just 55% of average for mid-January.

Karla Nemeth, director of the Department of Water Resources, said “severe drought is not over. Dry conditions have already returned in January. Californians must continue to conserve as the state plans for a third dry year.”

Earlier this month the State Water Resources Control Board approved new regulations that could result in $500 fines for Californians who over-water their lawns, wash their cars without a shutoff nozzle or engage in other wasteful practices.

State officials have warned that if dry conditions persist this year, Gov. Gavin Newsom’s administration would likely impose broader mandatory conservation rules on urban Californians. During the last drought, then-Gov. Jerry Brown ordered urban customers to reduce usage by 25%.

The State Water Project delivered just a 5% allocation for all of 2021.

The other big water provider in California, the federal government’s Central Valley Project, has yet to announce an initial allocation for this year.



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Citation:
A sign the drought is easing: California officials to ship more water to farms, cities (2022, January 21)
retrieved 23 January 2022
from https://phys.org/news/2022-01-drought-easing-california-ship-

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Report: Women economists underrepresented 'at every level' in UK academia thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Report: Women economists underrepresented ‘at every level’ in UK academia

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: University of Cambridge

New research shows the gender gap in the teaching and study of economics is still dramatic and actually getting worse. Economists argue that this is not just a problem for the discipline, but for society as a whole.

Women are underrepresented “at almost every level” within the discipline of economics in UK universities, according to a new report co-authored by a Cambridge .

In fact, Dr. Victoria Bateman says the new report for Royal Economics Society (RES) reveals signs of “stagnation and retreat” in the closing of gender gaps across the study of economics—with female intake (relative to male) actually falling at both undergraduate and master’s levels over the last two decades.

Published today, the report, “Gender Imbalance in UK Economics,” marks 25 years since the establishment of the RES Women’s Committee, which was set up to monitor and advance the representation of in UK economics.

“The economy affects everyone, and economists need to represent us all,” said Bateman, an Economics Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. “If they don’t, that’s a major barrier to building a solid understanding of the economy.”

“Across all students, from undergraduate to Ph.D., there are twice as many men studying economics as there are women in UK universities. While in many respects the discipline of economics has come a long way in the 21st century, the is clearly still real, persistent and in some ways getting worse.”

Bateman and colleagues argue that attracting, retaining and promoting female economists is a “particular problem” within UK academia when compared to areas of government and third sector organizations such as think tanks.

Only a quarter (26%) of economists working in UK academia are female, and only 15% of economics professors are women, compared to 38% of the economists at the UK Treasury and 44% of researchers at think tanks.






Credit: University of Cambridge

Among UK students entering the discipline, the gender gap has actually widened since 2002, when 31% of economics undergraduates and 37% of master’s students were women. By 2018, this had fallen to 27% and 31% respectively. Bateman says these statistics show that the closure of the gender gap in economics “isn’t simply a matter of time”.

“Only a third of economics lecturers in the UK are women, and just fifteen percent of economics professors,” said report co-author Dr. Erin Hengel, who received her Ph.D. in economics from Cambridge before going on to lecture at the University of Liverpool.

“While these figures are better than they were twenty-five years ago, the improving trend has leveled off. It appears that progress is starting to slow far before we reach any kind of gender parity.”

When the report’s authors factored in ethnicity, the percentage of female students was higher. In 2018, a third (33%) of Black economics undergraduates and 31% of Asian ethnicity undergraduates were women, compared to a quarter (25%) of White students.

However, women from ethnic minority backgrounds are not staying in academic economics. The report also found that at Ph.D. level, the proportion of women is ten percentage points lower among minority candidates than white candidates.

Perhaps startlingly, the report found that between 2012 and 2018 there was not a single Black woman employed as a professor of economics anywhere in the UK.

Bateman says she hopes the new report will serve as a “call to arms” for the discipline of economics. “We are calling on universities to ask themselves why so few UK women are attracted to studying and researching the economy and why, even when they are, they do not stay,” she said.

Bateman’s 2019 book The Sex Factor showed how the status and freedom of women are central to prosperity, and that “ blindness” in economics has left the discipline wide of the mark on everything from poverty and inequality to understanding cycles of boom and bust.

“Unless economists are diverse, we cannot hope to build a complete understanding of the economy, and, with it, formulate the right kinds of policies,” Bateman added.



Citation:
Report: Women economists underrepresented ‘at every level’ in UK academia (2021, July 13)
retrieved 14 July 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-07-women-economists-underrepresented-uk-academia.html

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