Leaders must deliver ‘strong’ ocean treaties: Greenpeace

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Countries are debating a proposal to designate 30 percent of Earth’s land area and oceans as protected zones by 2030.

Governments must adopt strong, enforceable treaties to protect oceans affected by global warming, overfishing and rampant pollution, Greenpeace activists said while staging a protest Thursday at the UN Ocean Conference in Lisbon.

“Our leaders are failing to deliver on their promise to protect the oceans,” said Laura Meller, lead for the environmental group’s protect the oceans campaign.

“We need a strong global ocean treaty that really changes how we look at the ocean and puts protection over profit,” she said on the margins of the five-day meeting, which ends Friday.

Draft treaties slated for completion this year must “create a network of ocean sanctuaries that allows marine life to heal”.

The Lisbon conference—attended by , experts and advocates from 140 countries—is not a negotiating forum.

But it will help set the oceans agenda at two critical summits later this year—the COP27 UN climate talks in November, hosted by Egypt, followed by the long-delayed COP15 UN biodiversity negotiations, recently moved from China to Canada.

At the heart of the COP15 draft treaty is a provision to designate 30 percent of Earth’s and oceans as protected zones by 2030.

Currently, under eight percent of oceans have protected status.

‘Our leaders are failing to deliver,’ Greenpeace activist Laura Melle said at the UN Ocean Conference.

The United States, European Union nations, Mexico, Canada, Japan and India are among 100 nations to have endorsed the so-called 30-by-30 target. China, Russia, Indonesia and Brazil have yet to do so.

In August, nations will also try to finalize a separate treaty—decades in the making—governing the exploitation of in the beyond areas of national jurisdiction known as “exclusive economic zones”.

Greenpeace activists sought to mount a banner showing a dead shark with the inscription “Killed by Political Action” at the conference site, but were stopped and escorted off the premises.

© 2022 AFP

Leaders must deliver ‘strong’ ocean treaties: Greenpeace (2022, June 30)
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Astronomers detect a new cataclysmic variable system

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One of the images in which TUVO-21acq was detected. The spiral galaxy NGC 4945 is clearly visible. The red lines indicate the position of TUVO-21acq. Credit: Modiano et al, 2022

Using NASA’s Swift spacecraft, astronomers have discovered a new cataclysmic variable (CV) through its ultraviolet (UV) bursting activity. The newfound CV, designated TUVO-21acq, was detected as part of the Transient UV Objects Project (TUVO). The finding is reported in a paper published June 21 on arXiv.org.

Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are consisting of a white dwarf primary that is accreting matter from a normal star companion. They irregularly increase in brightness by a large factor, then drop back down to a quiescent state. These binaries have been found in many environments, such as the center of the Milky Way galaxy, the solar neighborhood, and within open and globular clusters. In CVs, from the companion star often occurs through an around the white dwarf and in some cases thermal instability in the disk triggers an outburst known as a dwarf nova (DN).

Now, a team of led by David Modiano of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, reports the finding of a new CV in the field that targeted the spiral galaxy NGC 4945. The new transient was detected in the UV band, approximately six arcminutes from the center of this galaxy. The discovery was made using data from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard Swift.

“Within our TUVO project, we have discovered and characterized a new cataclysmic variable in the UV, that we have denoted as TUVO-21acq. The first detection was made in February 2021 using our dedicated pipeline TUVOpipe, which analyzes daily UVOT data to look for transients. A second UV outburst was detected in January 2022,” the researchers explained.

The astronomers used UVOT to constrain the properties of TUVO-21acq, focusing mainly on the amplitudes and timescales of the two outbursts. They found that during the first outburst the source increased in brightness by at least 4.1, 2.4, and 3.5 magnitudes and during the second outburst by 4.4, 3.4, and 3.6 magnitudes in three UV bands.

By calculating the time between the first and last detections of each outburst of TUVO-21acq, the researchers determined lower limits for the first and second outburst durations, which were estimated to be 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. The upper limits for the first and second outburst were calculated to be 21.1 and 45 days, respectively.

According to the study, key parameters of TUVO-21acq’s outbursts derived from UVOT photometry, including the amplitudes, durations, and recurrence time, were found to be fully consistent with dwarf novae. Moreover, the overall shape and key emission features exhibited in the spectrum suggest that the source is a quiescent cataclysmic variable. Therefore, the astronomers classified TUVO-21acq as a DN CV.

“We confirm the nature of the source as an accreting white dwarf which underwent DN based on photometric and spectroscopic properties,” the scientists concluded.

They added that their finding demonstrates the capabilities of TUVO in discovering new, previously unclassified transients in the UV wavelength range.

More information:
David Modiano et al, TUVO-21acq: a new cataclysmic variable discovered through a UV outburst. arXiv:2206.10395v1 [astro-ph.HE], arxiv.org/abs/2206.10395

© 2022 Science X Network

Astronomers detect a new cataclysmic variable system (2022, June 29)
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