Hexbyte Glen Cove Study investigates the sources that Latina, Vietnamese women turn to for health information thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Study investigates the sources that Latina, Vietnamese women turn to for health information

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Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Latina and Vietnamese women are disproportionately impacted by cervical cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV), a common but preventable viral infection of the reproductive tract. In addition to facing a greater burden of disease, Latina and Vietnamese women are also known to underutilize the HPV vaccine, which is an effective cervical cancer prevention measure.

A University of California, Irvine-led study, based on interviews of 50 Latina and Vietnamese women, revealed that this population turns to many sources for about the HPV vaccine – from online and social media to school health classes, mothers, and doctors.

Furthermore, when reading this information, many cited privacy, avoiding , and receiving information from trusted sources as important to their overall understanding of preventative measures against contracting HPV. Information access, convenience, and credibility were also key motivating factors for many of the women interviewed.

Findings from this study are published in the Journal of Primary Prevention.

“We set out to understand and identify the different sources that people go to for critical health information, which we believe is key in determining the types of interventions suitable for hard-to-reach populations,” said Suellen Hopfer, PhD, assistant professor at UCI Public Health and corresponding author on the study. “Recognizing that patterns in information consumption are ever-changing among young adults, we needed to get a better understanding of where Latina and Vietnamese women were seeking HPV vaccine information.”

This study advances literature on prevention by calling attention to platform delivery considerations that public health researchers and practitioners should undertake when attempting to reach vulnerable populations. Results from the study illustrate the need for interventions to use trusted sources and consistent messaging as they deliver critical health information, certainly in the case of HPV prevention but in all other areas of research as well. 



More information:
Suellen Hopfer et al, Health Information Source Characteristics Matter: Adapting the Dissemination of an HPV Vaccine Intervention to Reach Latina and Vietnamese Women, The Journal of Primary Prevention (2021). DOI: 10.1007/s10935-021-00643-2

Citation:
Study investigates the sources that Latina, Vietnamese women turn to for health information (2021, October 1)
retrieved 4 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-sources-latina-vietnamese-women-health.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Graphene: 'Miracle material' singled out for COVID conspiracies thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Graphene: ‘Miracle material’ singled out for COVID conspiracies

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Graphic on the characteristics of graphene, the material of the future?

Graphene, a Nobel Prize-awarded material with promising applications for greener energy and nanomedicine, has been the topic of much disinformation by coronavirus anti-vaxxers claiming it can be used to “magnetize” and “control” people.

What is graphene?

Often referred to as a “miracle material,” graphene is one of the world’s strongest materials, and one of the lightest.

A form of carbon just one atom thick—many times thinner than a human hair—graphene is transparent, but stronger than steel.

It was aired as a theoretical substance in 1947, but for decades, physicists thought it would be impossible to isolate.

The problem was resolved in 2004 by scientists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, who used ordinary sticky tape to lift a layer from a piece of graphite—the stuff in pencil lead.

That layer was itself pulled apart using more tape, and the process repeated until just the thinnest of layers remained—a .

In 2010, the pair received the Nobel Physics Prize for their efforts.

Graphene, a super conductor of heat and electric energy, is “among the most promising materials for technologies of the future,” Argentine chemistry researcher Marcelo Mariscal, a specialist in nanotechnology, told AFP.

It is the focus of research into the manufacturing of ultra-strong but lightweight and flexible electronic devices, satellites, airplanes and cars, greener alternatives to batteries, and a delivery vehicle for gene or molecular therapy—potentially also for use in vaccines.

What is the link to COVID-19 vaccines?

As has been the case with 5G and microchip technology, graphene has been the subject of several “trojan horse” according to which governments or powerful individuals are supposedly seeking to remotely “control” people who receive some sort of mini device through coronavirus vaccines, or track their whereabouts through GPS.

This control could be exercised from 5G towers transmitting signals to people supposedly carrying graphene particles, one theory goes.

In another widely-disseminated claim, alleged they had been “magnetized” by the vaccine, posting images of magnets, coins or cutlery allegedly attached to the arm in which they received the jab.

Some conspiracy theorists have claimed that vaccines containing graphene have altered people’s “electromagnetic field” and that this can be fatal.

What is the truth?

To start with, none of the vaccines approved for use by the World Health Organization contain graphene or its derivative, .

Conspiracies were fueled when Canada in April recalled certain anti-coronavirus facemasks with a graphene layer over concerns that inhaled particles inhaled could cause asbestos-like lung damage.

In July, their sale was resumed after a review found that “biomass are not shed from these masks in quantities that are likely to cause adverse lung effects.”

Experts also dispute the alleged magnetizing properties of graphene.

The material “is magnetic only in very specific laboratory conditions,” Diego Pena of the Spanish Research Centre for Biological Chemistry and Molecular Materials told AFP.

A video of a brain autopsy widely circulated on social media as evidence of the alleged lethal effects of graphene in a vaccinated person, was in fact from a patient with bleeding on the brain, and filmed before COVID-19 was even identified.

Experts say the hype about ‘s promising applications—most of them still in the research phase—have contributed to it being a popular target for disinformation.

“The material is known, everyone knows it’s real, but not everyone understand how it works,” said Ester Vazquez Fernandez-Pacheco, director of the Regional Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IRICA) in Spain.

It is, therefore, “very easy to make people believe things that have no scientific basis.”



© 2021 AFP

Citation:
Graphene: ‘Miracle material’ singled out for COVID conspiracies (2021, October 2)
retrieved 3 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-graphene-miracle-material-singled-covid.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Brazil's Amazon records least September fires in 20 years thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Brazil’s Amazon records least September fires in 20 years

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In this Sept. 14, 2020 file photo, an egret flies over a bask of caiman on the banks of the almost dried up Bento Gomes river, in the Pantanal wetlands near Pocone, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The number of Amazon fires was just over half the level recorded in September last year, according to the daily September 2021 data released by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, along with a sharp drop in the amount of fires in the Pantanal wetlands. September is historically Brazil’s worst month for forest fires. Credit: AP Photo/Andre Penner, File

The number of fires in Brazil’s Amazon during September dropped to the lowest for the month in two decades, according to data from the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research.

September is historically Brazil’s worst month for and, while the data is positive, environmental experts question whether the trend will be confirmed by coming months.

The number of Amazon fires was just over half the level recorded in September last year, according to the data. That helped push down the nationwide total, along with a sharp drop in the amount of fires in the Pantanal wetlands. Fires in September retreated to the lowest number for the month since 2018, several months before President Jair Bolsonaro took office.

Since taking office, Bolsonaro has encouraged development within the Amazon and dismissed global complaints about its destruction as a plot to hold back the nation’s agribusiness. His administration also weakened environmental authorities and backed legislative measures to loosen land protections, emboldening land grabbers.

More recently, he has sought to demonstrate heightened environmental commitment in the face of criticism from the administration of U.S. President Joe Biden and troubled institutional investors. At the United Nations this month, he credited his administration’s redoubled efforts for the plunge of Amazon deforestation alerts in August, which followed a year-on-year decline in July. September results will be released in the coming week.

Environmentalists roundly dismiss his shift as disingenuous and say his deployment of the military to the Amazon is ineffective for preservation; an Associated Press investigation last year found the same results.

Márcio Astrini, executive secretary of the Climate Observatory, a network of environmental nonprofit groups, welcomed September fire data, but said he would need to see lower figures through at least year-end before declaring it a trend, particularly given still-elevated deforestation levels and limited enforcement.

“As government action in the Amazon is very weak, even with these variations, it’s hard to say it will be maintained. Why would it be maintained?” Astrini said. “The government isn’t there, there’s no repression. So it depends on the will of the people who are deforesting, setting fires.″

Severe drought and early data at the start of the forest fire season had raised widespread concern that this year’s blazes would reach the same destruction recorded in the past two years.

But rainfall in the Amazon during August was significantly above average. That was the main inhibitor keeping ranchers from setting fire to felled trees in September, which seemed “almost divine intervention,” said Ane Alencar, science director at the Amazon Environmental Research Institute.

By contrast in the Pantanal, the world’s largest tropical wetlands, there has been a shift in behavior from last year leading to far fewer fires, despite the ongoing drought that has rendered the area a powder keg, Alencar added. Fires are down by more than two-thirds in the first nine months of 2020 after last year’s explosion brought ruin to the local tourism industry.

“The disaster of last year served to help people better organize firefighting and prevention this year,” Alencar said. “The last year had an important impact in making people think more about their actions and, with peer enforcement, reduce the use of .”



© 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

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Brazil’s Amazon records least September fires in 20 years (2021, October 2)
retrieved 3 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-brazil-amazon-september-years.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Northeast Atlantic countries create new protected sea area thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Northeast Atlantic countries create new protected sea area

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Credit: CC0 Public Domain

The governments of 15 countries in the Northeast Atlantic on Friday created a new protected area of the ocean they say is bigger than the combined land mass of Germany and the United Kingdom.

The countries designated a marine protected area for seabirds covering nearly 600,000 square kilometers (about 230,000 square miles) as part of their efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainability of marine biodiversity.

The protected zone area is viewed as crucial for the feeding and breeding of local and migrating seabirds.

Government representatives also gave their blessing at a meeting in Portugal to a new North-East Atlantic Environment Strategy, which features commitments to reduce the and , , and pollution, including .

The plan includes a target to reduce trash in the sea by 50% by 2025, and by 75% by 2030.

The 15 countries belong to the so-called OSPAR Convention. They are Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, Iceland, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. The European Union is also a member.



© 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Citation:
Northeast Atlantic countries create new protected sea area (2021, October 2)
retrieved 3 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-northeast-atlantic-countries-sea-area.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Marine heatwaves could have severe negative impacts on global fish stocks thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Marine heatwaves could have severe negative impacts on global fish stocks

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Marine heatwaves could wipe out an extra six per cent of a country’s fish catches, costing millions their jobs. Credit: Cassiano Psomas on Unsplash

Extremely hot years will wipe out hundreds of thousands of tonnes of fish available for catch in a country’s waters in this century, on top of projected decreases to fish stocks from long-term climate change, a new UBC study projects.

Researchers from the UBC Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries (IOF) used a complex model incorporating extreme annual ocean temperatures in Exclusive Economic Zones, where the majority of global fish catches occur, into climate-related projections for fish, fisheries and their dependent human communities.

Modelling a where no action is taken to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions they projected a six percent drop in the amount of potential catches per year and 77 percent of exploited species are projected to decrease in biomass, or the amount of fish by weight in a given area, due to extremely hot years. These decreases are on top of those projected due to long-term decadal-scale climate change.

The numbers

  • In Pacific Canada, Sockeye salmon catches are projected to decrease by 26 percent on average during a high temperature event between 2000 and 2050, an annual loss of 260 to 520 tonnes of fish. With losses due to climate change, when a temperature extreme occurs in the 2050s, the total decrease in annual catch would be more than 50 percent or 530 to 1060 tonnes of fish.
  • Peruvian anchoveta catches are projected to decline by 34 percent during an extreme high temperature event between 2000 and 2050, or more than 900,000 tonnes per year. With climate change, a temperature extreme is projected to cost Peruvian anchoveta fisheries more than 1.5 million tonnes of their potential catch.
  • Overall, a high temperature extreme event is projected to cause a 25 percent drop in annual revenue for Peruvian anchoveta fisheries, or a loss of around US$600 million
  • Nearly three million jobs in the Indonesian fisheries-related sector are projected to be lost when a high temperature extreme occurs in their waters between 2000 and 2050.
  • Some stocks are projected to increase due to these extreme events, and climate change, but not enough to mitigate the losses

During extreme ocean temperature events and on top of projected temperature changes each decade, researchers projected that fisheries’ revenues would be cut by an average of three percent globally, and employment by two percent; a potential loss of millions of jobs.

“These extreme annual temperatures will be an additional shock to an overloaded system,” said lead author Dr. William Cheung, professor and director of UBC’s Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries (IOF). “We see that in the countries where fisheries are already weakened by long-term changes, like ocean warming and deoxygenation, adding the shock of temperature extremes will exacerbate the impacts to a point that will likely exceed the capacity for these fisheries to adapt. It’s not unlike how COVID-19 stresses the healthcare system by adding an extra burden.”

Extreme temperature events are projected to occur more frequently in the future, says co-author Dr. Thomas Frölicher, professor at the climate and environmental physics division of the University of Bern. “Today’s marine heatwaves and their severe impacts on fisheries are bellwethers of the future as these events are generating environmental conditions that long-term global warming will not create for decades.”

Some areas will be worse hit than others, the researchers found, including EEZs in the Indo-Pacific region, particularly waters around South and Southeast Asia, and Pacific Islands; the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and area which runs along the Pacific coast of the Americas; and some countries in the West African region.

In Bangladesh, where fisheries-related sectors employ one-third of the country’s workforce, an extreme marine heat event is expected to cut two percent—about one million—of the country’s fisheries jobs, in addition to the more than six million jobs that will be lost by 2050 due to long-term climate change.

The situation is similarly grim for Ecuador, where extreme high temperature events are projected to adversely impact an additional 10 percent, or around US$100 million, of the country’s fisheries revenue on top of the 25 percent reduction expected by the mid-21st century.

“This study really highlights the need to develop ways to deal with marine temperature extremes, and soon,” Cheung said. “These temperature extremes are often difficult to predict in terms of when and where they occur, particularly in the hot spots with limited capacity to provide robust scientific predictions for their fisheries. We need to consider that unpredictability when we plan for adaptations to long-term climate change.”

Cheung said that active fisheries management is vital. Potential adaptations include adjusting catch quotas in years when fish stocks are suffering from extreme temperature events, or, in severe cases, shuttering fisheries so that stocks can rebuild. “We need to have mechanisms in place to deal with it,” said Cheung.

It will be important to work with those affected by such adaptation options when developing them, as some decisions could exacerbate impacts on communities’ livelihoods, as well as food and nutrition security, said co-author Dr. Colette Wabnitz, an IOF research associate and lead scientist at the Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions. “Stakeholders are diverse, and include not only industry, but also Indigenous communities, small-scale fisheries and others. They should be involved in discussions about the effects of and marine heatwaves as well as the design and implementation of solutions.”



More information:
William W. L. Cheung et al, Marine high temperature extremes amplify the impacts of climate change on fish and fisheries, Science Advances (2021). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abh0895

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Morality demonstrated in stories can alter judgement for early adolescents thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Morality demonstrated in stories can alter judgement for early adolescents

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An important lesson in the moral education of children could be as close as the book in their hands. Stories matter. And they can play a role in shifting the importance of particular moral values in young audiences, according to the results of a new study.

“Media can distinctly influence separate moral values and get kids to place more or less importance on those values depending on what is uniquely emphasized in that content,” says Lindsay Hahn, Ph.D., an assistant professor of communication in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences.

Hahn is first author of the new study, which adds critical nuance to a body of literature that explores how content affects children. While many previous studies have focused on broad conceptualizations, like prosocial or antisocial effects that might be associated with specific content, Hahn’s study looks at how exposure to content featuring specific moral values (care, fairness, loyalty and authority) might influence the weight kids place on those values.

Do children reading about particular moral characteristics absorb those traits as a building block for their own morality? The findings, which appear in the Journal of Media Psychology, suggest so, and further support how this indirect approach to socializing children’s morality can supplement the direct teaching of moral principles kids might receive through formal instruction.

“Parents, caregivers and teachers are often wondering how media can be used for good,” says Hahn, an expert in media psychology and media effects. “How can it be used for good things? How can it discourage bad habits? How can it educate?”

Answering those questions begins with a better understanding about how to use media.

“When parents are considering what media they might want to select for their children, they can take into account what particular moral value is being emphasized by the main character, and how the main character is treated because of those actions,” she says.

For the study, Hahn and her colleagues took the main character from a young adult novel and edited the content to reflect in each version the study’s focus on one of four moral values. A fifth version was manipulated in a way that featured an amoral main character. Those narratives were shared with roughly 200 participants between the ages of 10 and 14. This is a favorable range for media research because it’s more difficult to introduce narrative comprehension in younger kids, while equally challenging to hold the attention of older adolescents, who become bored with rudimentary storylines, according to Hahn.

The team then created a scale designed to measure the importance kids place on moral values to determine how participants might be influenced by specific narratives.

“Measuring these effects can be difficult,” says Hahn. “That’s why, in addition to testing our hypothesis, another purpose of this research was to develop a measure of moral values for kids. Nothing like that exists yet, that we know of.”

That measure, notes Hahn, can facilitate future research on media effects in young audiences.

Paper co-authors include Ron Tamborini, Michigan State University (MSU) professor of communication; Sujay Prabhu, an MSU affiliate; Clare Grall, Dartmouth College postdoctoral researcher; Eric Novotny, University of Georgia postdoctoral researcher; and Brian Klebig, Bethany Lutheran College associate professor of communication.



More information:
Lindsay Hahn et al, Narrative Media’s Emphasis on Distinct Moral Intuitions Alters Early Adolescents’ Judgments, Journal of Media Psychology (2021). DOI: 10.1027/1864-1105/a000307

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Predicting trail choices based on off-highway vehicle drivers' motivations thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Predicting trail choices based on off-highway vehicle drivers’ motivations

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by S.J. & Jessie E. Quinney College of Natural Resources, Utah State University

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

It’s certainly easy to do, but not very useful, to stereotype outdoorsy people based on the types of recreation they choose. What kind of person takes a side-by-side vehicle up a dusty mountain road, for instance? And why? In reality, off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation attracts a variety of people with diverse motivations for hitting the trail. And those motivations define, in part, the way they drive, according to new research from Jordan Smith, director of Utah State University’s Institute of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism in the S.J. & Jessie E. Quinney College of Natural Resources.

OHV drivers move across the terrain in distinctly different patterns depending on the kind of experience they want from the outdoors, Smith said. In the high desert of the Sheeprock Mountains in central Utah where the research was conducted, drivers reported one of three motivations for showing up on the mountain: spending time with friends and family in the outdoors, facing a physical challenge, or learning something new. Survey data about these motivations were paired with GPS data from routes used by the different groups. Distinct patterns emerged—recreationists’ internal drive was correlated with where they drove, literally.

This kind of information can help managers predict which routes OHV drivers are going to choose, based on what their motivations are for participating. This also allows managers to ensure recreationists get the kind of benefits they are seeking from public lands, according to the research. The predictability can support better communication with recreationists.

“It’s important to get the right messages in front of the recreationists most likely to engage with those messages,” said Smith. “This study shows that while OHV recreationists’ motivations may be diverse, those motivations do appear to be related to distinct spatial behaviors. This information can be used to craft more meaningful, and spatially targeted, communication strategies.”

Spatially visualizing recreationists’ motivations is a unique strategy managers can use to create more relevant messages for different visitor groups. Spatially targeted signs and other on-site information for recreationists seeking achievement or stimulation may focus on rider safety and be geared towards more advanced riders. Similarly, signs in places where families recreate could include educational materials to instill a responsible riding ethic. Other interpretive messages could stress the importance of resource stewardship and may be more likely to encourage conservation-minded behavior.

A spatial representation of recreation motivations can provide managers with practical information to guide OHV planning and management. It offers a unique opportunity for resource managers to develop spatially relevant communication for a targeted audience. As the popularity of OHV continues to grow, managers can use this research to ensure more meaningful, direct messages are seen by specific users in the right places, Smith said.



More information:
Jordan W. Smith et al, Motivations and spatial behavior of OHV recreationists: A case-study from central Utah (USA), Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.jort.2021.100426

Provided by
S.J. & Jessie E. Quinney College of Natural Resources, Utah State University

Citation:
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Hexbyte Glen Cove Black Americans are most likely to experience fatal police violence thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Black Americans are most likely to experience fatal police violence

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Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

More than 55% of deaths from police violence in the USA from 1980-2018 were misclassified or unreported in official vital statistics reports according to a new study in The Lancet. The highest rate of deaths from police violence occurred for Black Americans, who were estimated to be 3.5 times more likely to experience fatal police violence than white Americans.

Researchers estimate that the US National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), the government system that collates all in the USA, failed to accurately classify and report more than 17,000 deaths as being caused by during the 40-year study period.

“Recent high-profile police killings of Black people have drawn worldwide attention to this urgent public health crisis, but the magnitude of this problem can’t be fully understood without . Inaccurately reporting or misclassifying these deaths further obscures the larger issue of systemic racism that is embedded in many US institutions, including law enforcement. Currently, the same government responsible for this violence is also responsible for reporting on it. Open-sourced data is a more reliable and comprehensive resource to help inform policies that can prevent police violence and save lives,” says co-lead author Fablina Sharara of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), University of Washington School of Medicine, USA.

To examine the extent of under-reporting, researchers compared NVSS data to three non-governmental, open-source databases on police violence: Fatal Encounters, Mapping Police Violence, and The Counted. These databases collate information from news reports and public record requests. When compared, the researchers’ new estimates highlight the extent to which deaths from police violence are under-reported in the NVSS and the disproportionate effect of police violence on Black, Hispanic, and Indigenous people in the USA.

Across all races and states in the USA, researchers estimate that NVSS data failed to report 17,100 deaths from police violence out of 30,800 total deaths from 1980-2018 (the most recent years of available NVSS data), accounting for 55.5% of all deaths from police violence during this period. Using a predictive model, researchers also estimated the total number of deaths from police violence in the USA, for all races/ethnicities and all states for 2019, estimating an additional 1,190 deaths, bringing the total number of deaths from police violence from 1980-2019 to 32,000.  

Black Americans experienced fatal police violence at a rate 3.5 times higher than white Americans, according to this analysis, with nearly 60% of these deaths misclassified in the NVSS (5,670 unreported deaths from police violence out of 9,540 estimated deaths). From the 1980s to the 2010s, rates of police violence increased by 38% for all races (with 0.25 deaths from police violence per 100,000 person-years in the 1980s as compared to 0.34 deaths from police violence per 100,000 person-years in the 2010s).

Compared to the deaths recorded in the new analysis, NVSS also missed 56% (8,540 deaths out of 15,200) of deaths of non-Hispanic white people, 33% (281 deaths out of 861) of non-Hispanic people of other races, and 50% (2,580 deaths out of 5,170) of Hispanic people of any race.

Deaths due to police violence were significantly higher for men of any race or ethnicity than women, with 30,600 deaths in men and 1,420 deaths in women from 1980 to 2019.

Previous studies covering shorter time periods have found similar rates of racial disparities, as well as significant under-reporting of police killings in official statistics. This new study is one of the longest study periods to date to address this topic.

The authors call for increased use of open-source data-collection initiatives to allow researchers and policymakers to document and highlight disparities in police violence by race, ethnicity, and gender, allowing for targeted, meaningful changes to policing and public safety that will prevent loss of life.

Additionally, the researchers point out that because many medical examiners or coroners are embedded within police departments, there can be substantial conflicts of interest that could disincentivize certifiers from indicating police violence as a cause of . Managing these conflicts of interest in addition to improved training and clearer instructions for physicians and medical examiners on how to document police violence in text fields on death certificates could improve reporting and reduce omissions and implicit biases that cause misclassifications.

“Our recommendation to utilize open-source data collection is only a first step. As a community we need to do more. Efforts to prevent police violence and address systemic racism in the USA, including body cameras that record interactions of police with civilians along with de-escalation training and implicit bias training for police officers, for example, have largely been ineffective. As our data show, fatal police violence rates and the large racial disparities in police killings have either remained the same or increased over the years. Policymakers should look to other countries, such Norway and the UK, where police forces have been de-militarized and use evidence-based strategies to find effective solutions that prioritize public safety and community-based interventions to reduce fatal police violence,” says co-lead author Eve Wool of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), University of Washington School of Medicine, USA.

The authors acknowledge some limitations in the study. This paper does not calculate or address non-fatal injuries attributed to police violence, which is critical to understanding the full burden of police violence in the USA and should be examined in future studies. The data also do not include police officers killed by civilians, police violence in USA territories, or residents who may have been harmed by military police in the USA or abroad. Because the researchers relied on death certificates, which only allow for a binary designation of sex, they were unable to identify non-cisgender people, potentially masking the disproportionately high rates of violence against trans people, particularly Black trans people.  The authors note that the intersectionality of gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and other identities and the relationship to fatal police violence should be studied in the future.

A Lancet Editorial adds, “The study is a potential turning point for improving national estimates of fatalities from police violence by incorporating non-governmental open-source data to correct NVSS data…Better data is one aspect of a public health approach; introducing harm-reduction policies is another. Policing in the USA follows models of hostile, racialised interactions between civilians and armed agents of the state. Marginalised groups are more likely to be criminalized through the war on drugs or homelessness. Reducing hostile or violent interactions between police and civilians, particularly those who are most vulnerable overall, is a forceful case for investment in other areas of community-based health and support systems, including housing, food access, substance use treatment, and emergency medical services. Strategies to lower fatalities from must include demilitarisation of , but with the broader call to demilitarize society by, for example, restricting access to firearms…Police forces too must take greater responsibility for police-involved injuries and deaths. Such changes are long overdue.”


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Hexbyte Glen Cove Wildfire bees on the brink thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Wildfire bees on the brink

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Graphical summary of the study. Credit: Flinders University

The number of threatened Australian native bee species is expected to increase by nearly  five times after the devastating Black Summer bushfires in 2019-20, new research led by Flinders University has found.

With 24 million hectares of Australia’s burnt, researchers say the casualties are clear among bee fauna and other insects and invertebrates after studying 553 species (about one-third of Australia’s known ) to assess the long-term environmental damage from the natural disaster.

“Our research is a call for action, from governments and policymakers, to immediately help these and other most in danger,” says lead author Flinders University Ph.D. candidate James Dorey, who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the Yale University Center for Biodiversity and Global Change.  

Of the bees studied, nine species were assessed as Vulnerable and two more Endangered as a result of the multiple fire fronts in the 2019-20 bushfires that also destroyed approximately 3000 homes and killed or displaced an estimated 3 billion animals.

The new study published in Global Change Biology warns widespread wildfire and forest fire damage is being repeated all around the world, from North America and Europe to the Congo and Asia, causing catastrophic impacts on biodiversity and sudden and marked reduction in population sizes of many species.

A colourful display of some of Australia’s native bees. Credit: James Dorey, Flinders University – Yale

“In these circumstances, there is a need for government and land managers to respond more rapidly to implement priority conservation management actions for the most-affected species in order to help prevent extinctions,” says Mr Dorey.

“Conserving insects and other less visible taxa should also be a factor in restoring and preserving some of the hundreds of bees that may not yet have been studied or recorded.”

He says the study forms a foundation for assessment of other taxa in Australia or on other continents where species are understudied and not registered on datasets or by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN Red List).

“Climate change is increasing the frequency of like wildfire, which impacts our wildlife,” says fellow author Dr. Stefan Caddy-Retalic, from The University of Adelaide and University of Sydney.

The golden-green carpenter bee (Xylocopa (Lestis) aerate Female) Xylocopa sp. Credit: James Dorey, Flinders University – Yale University

“Our study shows that we can assess the likely impact of natural disasters on poorly studied species, even when we can’t physically visit the field to do surveys.”

“Listing severely-impacted species on the IUCN red list and under Australian law represents our best approach to lobby governments to act,” he says, adding native bees are very important providers of ecosystem services including pollination, but most are poorly known.

“Most people aren’t aware of just how vulnerable our native bees are because they are not widely studied,” adds Flinders University researcher Olivia Davies, another of the 13 authors on the major paper. “The fact that no Australian bees are listed by the IUCN shows just how neglected these important species are.”

The study, which recommends 11 Australian bee species (just 2% of those analysed) as priority taxa for listing as IUCN Threatened species, also demonstrates a new model for “using the data we already have to understand how natural disasters are likely to impact key species and their ecosystems”.

L gracilipes, one of the species assessed as vulnerable in the new report. Credit: Ken Walker (iNaturalist Australia)

“Being able to collect targeted data will always be the gold standard but we shouldn’t let data gaps stop us from acting to protect species we know are vulnerable,” Dr. Dorey concludes.

The collaborative study includes researchers from Flinders University’s Laboratory of Evolutionary Genetics and Sociality, the South Australian Museum, University of Adelaide, Curtin University, University of Sydney, University of Melbourne, Murdoch University and Charles Darwin University.



More information:
James B. Dorey et al, Continental risk assessment for understudied taxa post‐catastrophic wildfire indicates severe impacts on the Australian bee fauna, Global Change Biology (2021). DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15879

Citation:
Wildfire bees on the brink (2021, October 1)
retrieved 1 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-10-wildfire-bees-brink.html

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part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Canaries lava peninsula doubles in size as wind change raises risk thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Canaries lava peninsula doubles in size as wind change raises risk

Hexbyte Glen Cove

The lava flow from the Cumbre Vieja volcano pours into the Atlantic Ocean.

Lava from the erupting volcano on La Palma in Spain’s Canary Islands that began cascading into the ocean two days ago has already covered an area bigger than 25 football pitches, with concerns rising over worsening air quality in nearby residential areas, experts said on Thursday.

The newly wrought peninsula had doubled in size to 20 hectares (50 acres) since the morning, according to the Volcanic Institute of the Canaries (Involcan).

While the feared explosion and clouds of toxic gases released as the hit the ocean have not materialised, a forecast change in wind may bring new hazards, the Pevolca volcanic emergency committee warned.

“With the weather we are going to have from tomorrow,” marked by a possible change in the direction of winds that have so far dispersed the gases towards the sea, it is possible “the smell of sulphur” will be felt “with greater intensity”, Pevolca official Ruben Fernandez said.

Sulphur dioxide levels increased for the first time on Thursday afternoon in Tazacorte, while the ash particles increased in density in Santa Cruz de La Palma, according to the National Institute of Toxicology.

Since it began on September 19, the dramatic eruption has forced thousands out of their homes, while lava has destroyed hundreds of houses, businesses and huge swathes of banana plantations.

The volcano spewed out rivers of lava that slowly crept towards the sea, eventually pouring into the Atlantic Ocean late on Tuesday.

Thousands of people have been evacuated.

Since then, the rivers of molten rock have not stopped cascading into the sea, creating a growing lava delta.

While the initial impact on the flora and fauna of being submerged under the river of molten rock is devastating, over the longer term, it may prove beneficial—bringing minerals from the Earth’s core to the surface and providing a habitat both underwater and on land for colonisation by species, experts said.

Fernando Tuya, a biodiversity researcher at the University of La Palma, said: “The lava will form a rocky platform that will become a substrate for numerous marine species in the future, that is to say in three to five years.”

As the white-hot lava poured into the sea, it sent plumes of acid fumes into the air that experts said could irritate the skin, eyes and respiratory tracts.

But fears it could affect the were quickly allayed as strong winds dispersed the vapours over the sea.

However that could change with the wind direction predicted to turn around on Friday.

A map locating where lava from the Cumbre Vieja volcano has reached the sea on the Canary Island of La Palma.

Disaster zone

Some 300 residents in the nearby town of Tazacorte have been told to stay at home to avoid any chance of inhaling the gases and a 3.5-kilometre (two-mile) exclusion zone remained in place, which also extends two nautical miles out to sea.

“Until we know that these areas are not at risk, these measures will be maintained,” Pevolca’s Ruben Fernandez said on Wednesday evening.

La Palma has been declared a natural , with the lava scorching its way across 476 hectares of land, the local government said on Twitter.

It has so far destroyed 855 buildings, an increase of more than 200 in just over 24 hours, the EU’s Copernicus observation programme said on Twitter.

The eruption of La Cumbre Vieja has forced some 6,000 people to flee their homes but so far, nobody has been injured or killed.

Although the volcano is still erupting, La Palma’s airport resumed operations on Wednesday after flights were suspended at the weekend due to the ash.

On Thursday, farmers were allowed to access their plantations outside the security zone to collect bananas—the chief cash crop on the island.

La Cumbre Vieja lies about 15 kilometres (nine miles) west of the airport as the crow flies, although the has only spilt down the western side of the volcano.



© 2021 AFP

Citation:
Canaries lava peninsula doubles in size as wind change raises risk (2021, September 30)
retrieved 1 October 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-09-canaries-lava-peninsula-size.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —