Hexbyte Glen Cove What can we learn from vanishing wildlife species: The case of the Pyrenean Ibex thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove What can we learn from vanishing wildlife species: The case of the Pyrenean Ibex

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Laña, the last surviving Pyrenean Ibex, returned as a mounted animal to Torla-Ordesa on the 6th November 2012 after its controversial cloning attempt. Her skin is now exhibited in the visitors centre of Ordesa & Monte Perdido National Park Credit: Manolo Grasa

Likely the first extinction event of the 2000s in Europe, the sad history of the Pyrenean Ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) is a powerful example of the ever-increasing species loss worldwide due to causes related to human activity. It can, however, give us valuable information on what should be done (or avoided) to halt this extinction vortex.

The distribution of this subspecies of Iberian Ibex was limited to the French and Spanish Pyrenees. Its first mention in an official written document, dating back to 1767, already refers to it as extremely rare. Like many other , it was almost hunted to before its killing became prohibited in 1913. Neither the institution of a national park (Ordesa & Monte Perdido), nor a conservation project with European LIFE program funding could stop the extinction of the Pyrenean Ibex eventually officialised on January 6, 2000. But the story of this charismatic animal did not end there—a controversial cloning program was started instantly with no scientific agreement, nor support from regional environmental NGOs, claiming that de-extinction was possible even in the absence of further DNA studies.

To find out more about the drivers of its extinction, an international team composed of 7 nationalities built a database of all known museum specimens and reconstructed the demographic history of the Pyrenean Ibex based on DNA evidence. Their research is published in the open-access, peer-reviewed journal Zoosystematics and Evolution.

Only the French mountaineer and photographer Bernhard Clos managed to take a series of good photos of the Bucardo, as the Pyrenean Ibex is called on the Spanish side. Credit: Bernhard Clos

The research found that after a between 14,000 and 29,000 years ago (which is quite recent from a genetic point of view), a significant loss of genetic diversity followed between approximately 15,000 and 7,500 years BP, and continued until present. By that time, the Pyrenean Ibex also lived outside the Pyrenean mountain chain, but, gradually, its distribution was reduced to only one valley in the Ordesa National Park in the Spanish Pyrenees.

Written sources confirm hunting of the Pyrenean Ibex from as early as the 14th century, and during the 19th and 20th century it became a common target for trophy hunters. Undoubtedly, hunting played an important role in reducing its and distribution area, but it is not possible—with the information currently available—to pinpoint it as the straw that broke the camel’s back. Infectious diseases that originate from livestock (for instance, those caused by the bluetongue virus, BTV, and sarcopses) are capable of decimating other subspecies of Iberian Ibex in extremely short periods of time.

The adventures of the British hunter E.N. Buxton were published in 1893. This engraving represents a hunting party in the Ordesa Valley (Spanish Pyrenees). Credit: Pensoft Publishers

While the relative contribution of various factors remains largely unknown, it seems that hunting and diseases transmitted from other animals have been effective in drastically reducing the number of Pyrenean ibexes over the last two centuries, because they were acting on an already genetically weakened population. This low genetic diversity, combined with inbreeding depression and reduced fertility, brought the population beyond the minimum viable size—from that point onwards, extinction was inevitable.

This case study shows the importance of historical biological collections for genetic analyses of extinct species. A privately owned 140-year-old trophy preserved in Pau, France, was genotyped as part of this research, showing that private individuals may possess material of high value. As there is little knowledge of such resources, the authors call for the creation of an online public database of private collections hosting biological material for the benefit of biodiversity studies.



More information:
Giovanni Forcina et al, Demography reveals populational expansion of a recently extinct Iberian ungulate, Zoosystematics and Evolution (2021). DOI: 10.3897/zse.97.61854

Citation:
What can we learn from vanishing wildlife species: The case of the Pyrenean Ibex (2021, April 6)
retrieved 6 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-wildlife-species-case-pyrenean-ibex.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove Size of raindrops can help identify potentially habitable planets outside our solar system thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Size of raindrops can help identify potentially habitable planets outside our solar system

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

One day, humankind may step foot on another habitable planet. That planet may look very different from Earth, but one thing will feel familiar—the rain.

In a recent paper, Harvard researchers found that raindrops are remarkably similar across different planetary environments, even planets as drastically different as Earth and Jupiter. Understanding the behavior of raindrops on other planets is key to not only revealing the on planets like Mars but identifying potentially outside our solar system.

“The lifecycle of is really important when we think about planet habitability,” said Kaitlyn Loftus, a graduate student in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and lead author of the paper. “But clouds and precipitation are really complicated and too complex to model completely. We’re looking for simpler ways to understand how clouds evolve, and a first step is whether cloud droplets evaporate in the atmosphere or make it to the surface as rain.”

“The humble raindrop is a vital component of the precipitation cycle for all ,” said Robin Wordsworth, Associate Professor of Environmental Science and Engineering at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and senior author of the paper. “If we understand how individual raindrops behave, we can better represent rainfall in complex climate models.”

An infographic comparing the projected size of raindrops on different planets. Please note Titan and present-day Mars are too cold for liquid water raindrops. Credit: AGU

An essential aspect of raindrop behavior, at least to climate modelers, is whether or not the raindrop makes it to the surface of the planet because water in the atmosphere plays a big role in planetary climate. To that end, size matters. Too big and the will break apart due to insufficient surface tension, regardless of whether it’s water, methane or superheated, liquid iron as on an exoplanet called WASP-76b. Too small and the drop will evaporate before hitting the surface.

Loftus and Wordsworth identified a Goldilocks zone for raindrop size using just three properties: drop shape, falling speed, and evaporation speed.

Drop shapes are the same across different rain materials and primarily depend on how heavy the drop is. While many of us may picture a traditional tear-shaped droplet, raindrops are actually spherical when small, becoming squashed as they grow larger until they transition into a shape like the top of a hamburger bun. Falling speed depends on this shape as well as gravity and the thickness of the surrounding air.

Evaporation speed is more complicated, influenced by atmospheric composition, pressure, temperature, and more.

By taking all of these properties into account, Loftus and Wordsworth found that across a wide range of planetary conditions, the math of raindrop falling means only a very small fraction of the possible drop sizes in a cloud can reach the surface.

“We can use this behavior to guide us as we model cloud cycles on exoplanets,” said Loftus.

“The insights we gain from thinking about and clouds in diverse environments are key to understanding exoplanet habitability,” said Wordsworth. “In the long term, they can also help us gain a deeper understanding of the climate of Earth itself.”



More information:
Kaitlyn Loftus et al. The Physics of Falling Raindrops in Diverse Planetary Atmospheres, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (2021). DOI: 10.1029/2020JE006653

Citation:
Size of raindrops can help identify potentially habitable planets outside our solar system (2021, April 5)
retrieved 6 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-size-raindrops-potentially-habitable-planets.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove NASA's Curiosity team names Martian hill that serves as mission 'gateway' thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove NASA’s Curiosity team names Martian hill that serves as mission ‘gateway’

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

The team of scientists and engineers behind NASA’s Curiosity rover named a hill along the rover’s path on Mars in honor of a recently deceased mission scientist. A craggy hump that stretches 450 feet (120 meters) tall, “Rafael Navarro mountain” is located on Mount Sharp in northwest Gale Crater.

The inspiration for the name is award-winning scientist Rafael Navarro-González; he died on Jan. 28, 2021, from complications related to COVID-19. A leading astrobiologist in Mexico, Navarro-González was a co-investigator on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), a portable chemistry lab aboard Curiosity that has been sniffing out the chemical makeup of Martian soil, rocks, and air. As such, he helped lead the team that identified ancient organic compounds on Mars; his many accomplishments also included identifying the role of volcanic lightning in the origin of life on Earth. Navarro-González was a researcher at Nuclear Sciences Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City.

“We are truly honored to have a prominent hill named after our dad; it’s his and our dream come true to see this happen,” wrote Navarro-González’s children, Rafael and Karina Navarro Aceves, in a statement to NASA. “Ever since our parents met, their dreams merged together and they became a beautiful team, working very hard for 36 years. Our dad was an accomplished scientist, but above all, a great human being who managed to balance work and family. Our mom, Faby, would always tell him that his name one day would be on Mars, and now that is coming true. We all believe that there must be a party in heaven.”

Rafael Navarro mountain sits at a major geological transition in Gale Crater from a clay-rich region to one that’s rich in sulfate minerals. Analyzing sulfate minerals may help scientists better understand the major shift in the Martian climate from wetter to drier conditions, according to Ashwin Vasavada, Curiosity’s project scientist based at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.

“We think of this hill as a gateway,” Vasavada said. “Rafael Navarro mountain will be constantly in our sights for the next year as Curiosity winds around it.”

This panorama, made up of multiple 100-millimeter Mastcam images stitched together, was taken by NASA’s Curiosity rover on Feb. 13, 2021, the 3,030th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The white balance has been adjusted to approximate Earth-like illumination and the sky has been filled in for aesthetic reasons. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

The new hill name is informal and meant for the use of Curiosity’s global team members. The team unofficially has named thousands of features in Gale Crater, from drill holes to rocks to dunes. “Team members agree on a name for a particular feature of interest, so that people don’t get confused if we observe it with multiple instruments,” Vasavada said.

Before Rafael Navarro mountain, the Curiosity team has named four other features after deceased mission scientists: “Jake Matijevic” is the first boulder Curiosity studied and is named after a rover engineer who died in 2012. Curiosity’s first drill hole, “John Klein,” honors the mission’s deputy project manager who died in 2011. “Nathan Bridges dune” gets its name from a co-investigator on Curiosity’s ChemCam instrument who died in 2017. And “Heinrich Wänke” is a rock target that commemorates Wänke’s contributions to the development of a rover instrument, APXS, which analyzes the chemical makeup of Martian rocks.

While a few other names of notable scientists not involved with Curiosity, such as astronomer Vera Rubin, and even writers, such as Ray Bradbury, grace the features of Gale Crater (which was named after Australian astronomer Walter F. Gale), the rover team’s general strategy is to name regions, and features within them, after areas of geological significance on Earth. For example, the region where Curiosity landed, the site of an ancient lake, was named “Yellowknife” after a city in northwest Canada where scientists gather to kick off geologic expeditions. The features in Martian Yellowknife were named after towns (“Bathurst Inlet”), mountains (“Sayunei”), or lakes (“Knob Lake”) in northern Canada.

In late March, Curiosity left “Nontron,” a region that takes the name of a village in southwestern France where the mineral nontronite was first described by scientists. Nontronite is part of a group of the most common types of clays on Mars. Now, Curiosity will navigate around Rafael Navarro mountain, stopping in different regions of scientific interest to drill samples.

“We won’t have Rafael with us for this next stretch, but we will bring his considerable expertise, creativity, and great enthusiasm for astrobiology studies to bear on our investigation of the ancient habitable environments in Gale Crater,” said Paul Mahaffy, principal investigator of Curiosity’s SAM experiment who’s based at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “Rafael was a good friend and dedicated scientist, and it has been a privilege and honor for our Mars exploration team to work with him over the years.”



Citation:
NASA’s Curiosity team names Martian hill that serves as mission ‘gateway’ (2021, April 5)
retrieved 6 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-nasa-curiosity-team-martian-hill.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Relapse Prevention – Hexbyte- Educational News and Links

Relapse Prevention

Relapse Prevention
Annamarie
Medically Reviewed
Annamarie Coy, BA, ICPR, MATS
Alyssa Hill
Written by

Alyssa Hill
icon of microscope
Evidence Based
icon of medical document
7 sources cited
icon of phone
Where do my calls go?
Jump to topic
The 3 Stages of Relapse
The 3 Stages of Alcohol Recovery
How to Create a Relapse Prevention Plan
We’re here to help you or your loved one.
855.772.9047
Why is Relapse Prevention Important?
Whether new to sobriety or sober for many years, relapsing is always a possibility. It is vital to understand the stages of relapse and which factors may put you at risk.

Understanding relapse prevention techniques and knowing how to help yourself is critical for a successful, long-term recovery. Additionally, creating a relapse prevention plan for alcoholism can help you maintain sobriety and avoid relapsing.

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism estimates that 90 percent of people recovering from alcohol use disorder will experience at least one relapse within the first four years following treatment.

NIAAA
The 3 Stages of Relapse
A relapse typically doesn’t occur as a spur-of-the-moment event. In most cases, there are three main stages of relapsing. Understanding these stages, and what to do when they occur, can help stop a relapse before it takes effect.

The 3 stages of relapse include:

1. Emotional Relapse
During an emotional relapse, a person is not consciously thinking about drinking. However, their emotions and behaviors are setting the stage for a relapse.

During this stage, denial plays a big role. Many of the signs that occur during emotional relapse are also symptoms of post-acute withdrawal (PAWS). To help minimize the risk of relapse, it is important to recognize that many of the uncomfortable feelings you experience in early addiction recovery could be symptoms of PAWS.

Symptoms of PAWS include:

Foggy thinking/trouble remembering
Urges and cravings
Irritability or hostility
Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or vivid dreams
Fatigue
Issues with fine motor coordination
Stress sensitivity
Anxiety or panic
Depression
Lack of initiative
Impaired ability to focus
Mood swings
Emotional relapse warning signs include:

Anxiety
Restlessness
Intolerance
Discontent
Anger and irritability
Defensiveness
Mood swings
Bottling up emotions
Isolation and not asking for help
Not attending support groups (or attending and not sharing)
Poor self-care (not eating, sleeping, or practicing good personal hygiene)
During an emotional relapse, the main goal should focus on self-care. The acronym HALT– hungry, angry, lonely, and tired–is an important thing to keep in mind during this stage.

Ask yourself questions like, “are you feeling exhausted or mentally drained?” or “are you taking time for yourself?” If the answer to these questions is no, it might be time to take a step back and practice self-care. You might also want to share your feelings with a support group or counselor.

2. Mental Relapse
During a mental relapse, a person is at war with their mind. A part of them knows they shouldn’t use, while the other part is looking for excuses to use. As this stage progresses, a person’s resistance to alcohol diminishes and their need to escape through alcohol use increases.

Early warning signs of mental relapse include:

Thinking about people, places, and things associated with past use
Spending time with users
Cravings for alcohol
Glamorizing past use
Minimizing the consequences of their past use
Bargaining
Lying
Thinking of ways that they could better control their alcohol use
Looking for opportunities to relapse
Planning a relapse
During this stage, it is critical to seek help in order to prevent a relapse. You can do so by talking to non-using friends, attending a meeting, or speaking to a counselor.

You can also find something to distract yourself. It takes 15 minutes for craving urges to go away, so it’s important to stay busy and use coping skills.

3. Physical Relapse
Physical relapse is the act of taking a drink and then using again, as well as the act of driving to the liquor store and purchasing alcohol. If you are unable to address the problems of emotional and mental relapse, it doesn’t take long to progress to physical relapse. For this reason, understanding and recognizing the signs of emotional and mental relapse is crucial.

Find Help For Your Addiction
You don’t have to overcome your addiction alone. Professional guidance and support is available. Begin a life of recovery by reaching out to a specialist today.

CALL NOW: (855) 772-9047
The 3 Stages of Alcohol Recovery
Research shows that there are three main stages in the recovery process. Each stage has specific tasks that can assist in preventing alcohol relapse. However, recovery is a personal process, and the length of each stage varies from person to person. The three stages include:

1. Abstinence Stage
The abstinence stage starts immediately after alcohol cessation and can last for one to two years. During this stage, the main focus is fighting cravings and avoiding alcohol use. Other goals of abstinence include personal self-care and development. It is also common for PAWS and relapse to occur during this stage.

Some key tasks of this stage include:

Accept that you have an addiction
Be honest with yourself and in your life
Develop coping skills to address cravings
Become an active member of your support groups – be willing to share
Focus on self-care and be kind to yourself
Change your group of friends – stay away from friends that still use
Develop healthy alternatives to drinking
See yourself as a non-user
2. Repair Stage
The repair stage focuses on repairing the damage caused by alcohol addiction. In many cases, it can last two to three years. During this stage, recovering alcoholics must confront the damage their addiction caused to relationships, their careers, their finances, and how they feel about themselves.

This stage is where a person works to overcome guilt and negative self-labeling in order to move forward.

Some helpful tasks during this stage include:

Understand that a person is not their addiction
Begin repairing personal relationships with family and friends
Work to improve self-care and make it an integral part of your daily life
Continue to be active in support groups
Continue to develop healthy alternatives to drinking
3. Growth Stage
The growth stage is all about moving forward and typically begins three to five years after alcohol cessation. This is the start of a new lifelong path to sobriety. In some cases, this is the time to address and confront any underlying cause of your initial addiction.

While many may want to address this sooner, they typically do not have the coping skills necessary to do so without increasing their relapse risk.

Some recommended tasks during this stage include:

Identify and begin to repair self-destructive patterns and negative thinking
Understand how familial patterns and past trauma may have contributed to your use and begin to move forward
Set healthy boundaries
Give back and try to help others
Take time on a regular basis to reevaluate how you are living
Take care of yourself in order to keep moving forward
How to Create a Relapse Prevention Plan
Whether on your own, with a rehab counselor, or through your support group, you should create an alcohol relapse prevention plan. While all prevention plans are unique, there are some major points you should always address.

These relapse prevention skills include:

Triggers – Begin by creating a list of all possible relapse triggers. These can be people, places, events, or emotions. While you may not know all of your possible triggers at the beginning, it can be a list that evolves over time.
Healthy coping skills and preventative tools – Create a list of healthy coping skills and tools you can use when cravings or thoughts of relapse occur. This can include building a healthy support system of friends and family you can turn to. Activities, such as exercising or journal writing, can also provide a distraction when triggering events occur. Another coping skill is to create a list of consequences, should you relapse. Often times, this is enough to redirect your thoughts and get you back on track.
Find and participate in a support group – Support from others is a crucial part of relapse prevention. Having the ability to talk to others that understand your recovery process can help. Finding a sponsor or counselor that you can turn to in times of crisis is also beneficial. While 12 Step programs work for many people, other options are available.
Lifestyle changes – Recovery involves more than not drinking. For example, you must create a life that makes it easier not to turn to alcohol. Look for new activities and hobbies. Set new career goals. Meet new people and create new social circles that encourage your recovery.
Don’t be afraid to ask for help – Recovery is not something you have to do alone. Asking for help is not a sign of failure, but rather a sign that you understand what is happening and that you need assistance. Self-help groups and support groups are a great place to start.
COVID-19 Doesn’t Have to Stop You From Getting Help
Rehab facilities are open and accepting new patients

(855) 772-9047
Related posts:
Preventing Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol Awareness Month
Resources
expansion icon
Annamarie
Medically Reviewed
Annamarie Coy, BA, ICPR, MATS
Alyssa Hill
Written by

Alyssa Hill
Home » Alcohol Addiction Treatment & Therapy Options » Relapse Prevention

BEGIN YOUR JOURNEY TOWARDS LASTING RECOVERY

(855) 772-9047

Hexbyte Glen Cove Florida homes evacuated as wastewater leak risks 'catastrophic' flood thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Florida homes evacuated as wastewater leak risks ‘catastrophic’ flood

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Florida Governor Ron DeSantis conducting a helicopter tour of the affected area Sunday

Emergency crews in central Florida were working Sunday to prevent an environmental catastrophe at a leaking reservoir that risked sending millions of gallons of contaminated wastewater toward nearby homes and into the Tampa Bay.

More than 300 homes near the site of an abandoned phosphate mine and fertilizer-production facility in Manatee County were under mandatory evacuation orders, and Governor Ron DeSantis on Saturday declared a state of emergency to free up funds to tackle the crisis.

“What we are looking at now is trying to prevent, and respond to if need be, a real catastrophic flood situation,” DeSantis told a press conference after viewing the site by helicopter Sunday.

He said emergency workers, assisted by the Florida National Guard, were pumping about 33 million gallons of water daily out of a wastewater reservoir at the site, which has sprung a growing leak in its plastic lining.

“According to on-site engineers, a controlled release was necessary to prevent a catastrophic failure,” the governor said.

The wastewater “meets water-quality standards for marine waters,” he said, with the exception of phosphorous and nitrogen levels.

Marine algae thrive on such elements, and environmental groups fear the release of millions of gallons of nutrient-rich water into the ocean could trigger a deadly “red tide,” or algal bloom, that can suffocate fish and other aquatic life and deter tourist activity.

Still ‘critical’

Manatee County’s acting administrator Scott Hopes said inmates and staff at the local jail had been moved to the second floor of the two-story building as a precaution.

Hopes sounded a slightly more optimistic note later Sunday, saying the situation should be in a “much better position” by Tuesday.

But “we are not out of the critical area yet,” he warned.

A collapse of the reservoir also risked sending water into nearby stacks of phosphogypsum, a leftover from fertilizer production.

Phosphogypsum is considered radioactive as it contains isotopes such as radon, as well as toxic heavy metals like arsenic, lead and mercury.

The Center for Biological Diversity national conservation group called for the US Environmental Protection Agency to step in.

“Federal officials need to clean up this mess the fertilizer industry has dumped on Florida communities and immediately halt further phosphogypsum production,” Jaclyn Lopez, the organization’s Florida director, said in a statement.

Problems at the Piney Point reservoir stretch back decades.

Florida’s agriculture commissioner, Nicole Fried, wrote to DeSantis, saying the current emergency was only the latest in a string of incidents.

“For more than 50 years, this central Florida mining operation has caused numerous human health and environmental disasters and incidents,” she wrote, adding there had been several earlier failures of the reservoir’s lining.

Hopes said authorities were looking to permanently empty reservoirs at the site.

“We won’t be repairing the liner, we will be depleting the holding ponds of their water and then we will be moving forward to a permanent solution into the future once we mitigate the current risk,” Hopes said.

This will “probably include filling these ponds after they have been devoid of their contents and capping them.”

DeSantis said the company operating the site, HRK Holdings, should be held accountable.

“This is not acceptable and it’s not something we will allow to persist,” he said.

HRK did not immediately respond to a request for comment.



© 2021 AFP

Citation:
Florida homes evacuated as wastewater leak risks ‘catastrophic’ flood (2021, April 4)
retrieved 5 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove NASA's Ingenuity helicopter dropped on Mars' surface ahead of flight thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter dropped on Mars’ surface ahead of flight

Hexbyte Glen Cove

An illustration depicting NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter flying on the Red Planet

NASA’s Ingenuity mini-helicopter has been dropped on the surface of Mars in preparation for its first flight, the US space agency said.

The ultra- had been fixed to the belly of the Perseverance rover, which touched down on the Red Planet on February 18.

“MarsHelicopter touchdown confirmed!” NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory tweeted Saturday.

“Its 293 million mile (471 million kilometer) journey aboard @NASAPersevere ended with the final drop of 4 inches (10 centimeter) from the rover’s belly to the surface of Mars today. Next milestone? Survive the night.”

A photograph accompanying the tweet showed Perseverance had driven clear of the helicopter and its “airfield” after dropping to the surface.

Ingenuity had been feeding off the Perseverance’s power system but will now have to use its own battery to run a vital heater to protect its unshielded electrical components from freezing and cracking during the bitter Martian night.

“This heater keeps the interior at about 45 degrees F (7 degrees Celsius) through the bitter cold of the Martian night, where temperatures can drop to as low as -130F (-90 degrees Celsius),” Bob Balaram, Mars Helicopter Project chief engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, wrote in an update on Friday.

Graphic on Ingenuity, the helicopter hitching a ride on the Perseverance rover, which is scheduled to make its first flight in early April.

“That comfortably protects key components such as the battery and some of the sensitive electronics from harm at very cold temperatures.”

Over the next couple of days, the Ingenuity team will check that the helicopter’s are working properly and recharging its battery before testing its motors and sensors ahead of its first flight, Balaram said.

Ingenuity is expected to make its first flight attempt no earlier than April 11, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory tweeted.

Ingenuity will be attempting to fly in an atmosphere that is one percent the density of Earth’s, which makes achieving lift harder—but will be assisted by gravity that is one-third of our planet’s.

The first will involve climbing at a rate of about three feet (one meter) per second to a height of 10 feet (three meters), hovering there for 30 seconds, then descending back to the surface.

NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter was fixed to the belly of the Perseverance rover, which touched down on February 18

Ingenuity will be taking high-resolution photography as it flies.

Up to five flights of gradual difficulty are planned over the month.

The four-pound (1.8-kilogram) rotorcraft cost NASA around $85 million to develop and is considered a proof of concept that could revolutionize space exploration.

Future aircraft could cover ground much quicker than rovers, and explore more rugged terrain.



© 2021 AFP

Citation:
NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter dropped on Mars’ surface ahead of flight (2021, April 4)
retrieved 5 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-nasa-ingenuity-helicopter-mars-surface.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove Realtime imaging of female gamete formation in plants thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Realtime imaging of female gamete formation in plants

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Development of the female gamete was observed over 20 hours, clearly showing the division of the nuclei and formation of the egg, central and synergid cells. Credit: Issey Takahashi

Scientists from Nagoya University, Yokohama City University and Chubu University have developed a system which enables the live imaging of the formation of the female gamete in plants.

In flowering plants, the sperm cell and egg cell meet and fertilization takes place in the flower. While are made in the pollen, are made in the ovule, the structure that becomes the seed. However, as the ovule is buried deep within the pistil, it has thus far been impossible to observe the formation of the egg cell in living plants.

The team, led by Dr. Daisuke Kurihara and Dr. Tetsuya Higashiyama of Nagoya University Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Dr. Daichi Susaki of Yokohama City University Kihara Institute for Biological Research and Dr. Takamasa Suzuki of Chubu University College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, using the ovule culturing technology that they had developed previously, succeeded in capturing images of the egg cell being formed inside the ovule. On top of that, they were able to isolate the egg cell and its neighboring , and by analyzing the genes expressed in these few cells, identify how the cells adjoining the egg cell determine its fate.

Living things which carry out sexual reproduction produce offspring via a fertilization process involving male and female gametes. In animals, the female gamete (the egg) is produced by meiosis, a type of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes present in the cell. However, the process in flowering plants is rather more lengthy. Following meiosis, karyomitosis (nuclear division) takes place three times within the cell, resulting in the production of a single cell with eight . This cell then divides, producing cells with a variety of different roles including two gametes, the egg cell and central cell, and the synergid cells. However, it was not yet understood precisely how the two female gametes were produced among the seven new cells that result from this process of division.

Using an ovule culturing method that they had developed previously, the research team attempted the observation in real time of the formation of the female gamete in Arabidopsis thaliana. They saw that when the first nuclear division takes place, the resulting two nuclei go to the opposite ends of the cell. Dividing again into four, the nuclei then line up along the edge of the cell. Finally, dividing again into eight, the plasma membranes are constructed around the nuclei, forming the cells which are attached to the two gametes (the egg cell and central cell). Having observed 157 cases of this division, they found that the nuclei close to where the pollen tube penetrates would become the nuclei of the synergid, egg and central cells, demonstrating that the position of the nuclei within the cell has a strong correlation with cell fate.

Continuing, in order to find out when the various cells’ fates are determined, they analyzed the time at which expression of the specific transcription factor myb98, important for the differentiation and function of the synergid cells, commenced. They found that myb98 begins to be expressed very shortly after the nuclei divide into 8 and are enclosed by the plasma membranes. Given that the specific transcription factor for the egg cell can also be found in the egg cell at the same early stage, it can be considered that cell fate is determined immediately after the formation of the plasma membranes, or possibly even earlier.

The time at which cell fate is determined is significant because it gives us an insight into how plants remain adaptable to environmental conditions by flexibly changing cell fate and thus ensuring the survival of crucial cells such as gametes.

Looking to the future, the research team’s focus will be on discovering how the cell fate change is accomplished, and explaining its . Once the molecular mechanism has been analyzed, it is expected that this field of research will contribute to the development of methods to increase plant fertilization rates and environmental resistance, offering the prospect of solving key issues in food supply that affect millions of people around the world.



More information:
Daichi Susaki et al, Dynamics of the cell fate specifications during female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis, PLOS Biology (2021). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001123

Citation:
Realtime imaging of female gamete formation in plants (2021, April 2)
retrieved 5 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove In show of Pharaonic heritage, Egypt parades royal mummies thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove In show of Pharaonic heritage, Egypt parades royal mummies

Hexbyte Glen Cove

A convoy of vehicles transporting royal mummies is seen in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)

Egypt held a gala parade on Saturday celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from central Cairo to their new resting place in a massive new museum further south in the capital.

The ceremony, designed to showcase the country’s rich heritage, snaked along the Nile corniche from the Egyptian Museum overlooking Tahrir Square to the newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization in the Fustat neighborhood, where Egypt’s first Islamic capital was located.

The mummies were being transported in climate-controlled cases loaded onto trucks decorated with wings and pharaonic design for the hour-long journey from their previous home in the older Egyptian Museum. The vehicles were designed to appear like the ancient boats used to carry deceased pharaohs to their tombs.

Most of the mummies belong to the New Kingdom, which ruled Egypt between 1539 B.C. to 1075 B.C., according to the Ministry of Antiquities.

They include Ramses II, one of the most famous pharaohs, and Queen Hatshepsut, Egypt’s only woman Pharaoh—who wore a false beard to overcome tradition requiring women to play only secondary roles in the royal hierarchy.

The mummies—18 pharaohs and four other royals—were originally buried around 3,000 years ago in secret tombs in the Valley of Kings and the nearby Deir el-Bahri site. Both areas are near the southern city of Luxor. The tombs were first excavated in the 19th century.

A convoy of vehicles transporting royal mummies is seen in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)

After excavation, the mummies were taken to Cairo by boats that sailed the Nile. Some were showcased in glass cases, while others were stored. The remains of Ramses II were taken to Paris in 1976 for intensive restoration work by French scientists.

The made-for-TV parade was part of Egypt’s efforts to attract foreign tourists by publicizing its ancient artifacts. The has been reeling from political turmoil following the 2011 popular uprising that toppled longtime autocrat Hosni Mubarak, and more recently, the coronavirus pandemic.

“This parade is a unique global event that will not be repeated,” declared Tourism and Antiquities Minister Khaled el-Anany.

Security was tight in the capital, with authorities closing off major streets and intersections along the route for the slow-moving vehicles. Guards on horses and Egyptian celebrities and signers followed the motorcade.

  • A convoy of vehicles transporting royal mummies is seen in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)
  • A convoy of vehicles transporting royal mummies is seen in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)
  • People watch parade of royal mummies in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)
  • People watch parade of royal mummies in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)
  • A convoy of vehicles transporting royal mummies is seen in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo/Samah Zidan)
  • A convoy of vehicles transporting royal mummies is seen in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, April 3, 2021. Egypt held a parade celebrating the transport of 22 of its prized royal mummies from Egyptian Museum to he newly opened National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. (AP Photo)

“Again, Egypt dazzles the world with an unrivalled event,” said movie star Hussein Fahmy in an official promotional video.

The event started in the late afternoon and was broadcast live on the country’s state-run television and other satellite stations. The Tourism and Antiquities Ministry also live-streamed it on .

The “Pharaohs’ Golden Parade” circled Tahrir square, where authorities officially unveiled an obelisk and four sphinxes to decorate Cairo’s most famous square.

Egypt’s President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi, who will welcome the mummies at the new museum, tweeted: “This majestic scene is a new evidence of the greatness of this people, the guarding of this unique civilization that extends into the depths of history.”

Once at the new , 20 of the mummies will be displayed, while the remaining two will be stored, according to the ministry.



© 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Citation:
In show of Pharaonic heritage, Egypt parades royal mummies (2021, April 3)
retrieved 4 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-pharaonic-heritage-egypt-parades-royal.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove Births among endangered right whales highest since 2015 thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Births among endangered right whales highest since 2015

Hexbyte Glen Cove

This Jan. 19, 2021 photo provided by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources shows a North Atlantic right whale mother and calf in waters near Wassaw Island, Ga. Scientists recorded 17 newborn right whale calves during the critically endangered species’ winter calving season off the Atlantic coast of the southeastern U.S. (Georgia Department of Natural Resources/NOAA Permit #20556 via AP)

North Atlantic right whales gave birth over the winter in greater numbers than scientists have seen since 2015, an encouraging sign for researchers who became alarmed three years ago when the critically endangered species produced no known offspring at all.

Survey teams spotted 17 newborn right whale calves swimming with their mothers offshore between Florida and North Carolina from December through March. One of those calves soon died after being hit a boat, a reminder of the high death rate for that experts fear is outpacing births.

The overall calf count equals the combined total for the previous three years. That includes the dismal 2018 calving season, when scientists saw zero right whale births for the first time in three decades. Still, researchers say greater numbers are needed in the coming years for North Atlantic right to rebound from an estimated population that’s dwindled to about 360.

“What we are seeing is what we hope will be the beginning of an upward climb in calving that’s going to continue for the next few years,” said Clay George, a wildlife biologist who oversees right whale surveys for the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. “They need to be producing about two dozen calves per year for the population to stabilize and continue to grow again.”

Right whales migrate each winter to the warmer Atlantic waters off the Southeastern U.S. to give birth. Trained spotters fly over the coastline almost daily during the calving season, scanning the water for mothers with newborns.

Survey flights over Georgia and Florida ended Wednesday on the last day of March, typically the season’s end. Spotters will monitor waters off the Carolinas through April 15, hoping to pick up any overlooked newborns as the whales head north to their feeding grounds.

This season’s calf count matches the 17 births recorded in 2015. Right whale experts consider that number fairly average, considering the record is 39 births confirmed in 2009.

Scientists suspect a calving slump in recent years may have been caused by a shortage of zooplankton to feed right whales in the Gulf of Maine and the Bay of Fundy off Nova Scotia. They say the uptick in births this season could be a result of whales being healthier after shifting to waters with more abundant food sources.

This March 11, 2021 photo provided by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources shows a North Atlantic right whale mother and calf in waters near Cumberland Island, Ga. Scientists recorded 17 newborn right whale calves during the critically endangered species’ winter calving season off the Atlantic coast of the southeastern U.S. (Georgia Department of Natural Resources/NOAA Permit #20556 via AP)

“It’s a somewhat hopeful sign that they are starting to adjust to this new regime where females are in good enough condition to give birth,” said Philip Hamilton, a right whale researched at the New England Aquarium in Boston.

Regardless, conservationists worry that right whales are dying—largely from manmade causes—at a faster rate than they can reproduce.

Since 2017, scientists have confirmed 34 right whale deaths in waters of the U.S. and Canada—with the leading causes being entanglement in fishing gear and collisions with boats and ships. Considering additional whales were documented in the same period with serious injuries they were unlikely to survive, researchers fear the real death toll could be at least 49.

That would exceed the 39 right whale births recorded since 2017.

“If we reduced or eliminated the human-caused death rate, their rate would be fine,” Hamilton said. “The onus should not be on them to reproduce at a rate that can sustain the rate at which we kill them. The onus should be in us to stop killing.”

The is expected to finalize new rules soon aimed at decreasing the number of right whales tangled up in fishing gear used to catch lobster and crabs in the Northeast. Proposals to reduce vertical fishing lines in the water and modify seasonal restricted areas have been met with heated debate. Fishermen say the proposed rules could put them out of businesses, while conservation groups insist they aren’t strict enough.

The National Marine Fisheries Service received more than 170,000 public comments on the proposed rules after a report was issued Dec. 31, said agency spokeswoman Allison Garrett. She said final rules should be published this summer.

Garrett said the fisheries service is also considering adjustments to federal rules that since 2008 have imposed speed limits on larger vessels in certain Atlantic waters during seasonal periods when right whales are frequently seen. An agency report in January found mariners’ compliance with the speed rules have improved overall, but still lagged below 25% for large commercial vessels at four ports in the Southeast.

“We’ve long known from the survival estimates that more right whales are dying than those we see,” said George, the whale survey coordinator for Georgia. “They need to be producing a lot more calves. But the big issue is we’ve got to significantly reduce the number than are being entangled in fishing ropes and struck by boats.”



© 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Citation:
Births among endangered right whales highest since 2015 (2021, April 3)
retrieved 4 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-births-endangered-whales-highest.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —

Hexbyte Glen Cove April, the giraffe that became an online star, dies thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove April, the giraffe that became an online star, dies

Hexbyte Glen Cove

This undated photo, provided by Animal Adventure Park on Sunday, June 3, 2018, shows a giraffe named April at Animal Adventure Park in Harpursville, N.Y. Park officials said 20-year-old April was euthanized “due to her worsening arthritis.” (Animal Adventure Park via AP)

April, the giraffe that became a sensation when a rural New York zoo livestreamed her 2017 pregnancy and delivery, was euthanized Friday because of advancing arthritis, the zoo said.

“She is a precious member of our family, and while we knew this day would eventually come, our hearts are hurting,” Animal Adventure Park owner Jordan Patch said in a statement.

The 20-year-old giraffe started showing signs of mobility problems last summer, and veterinary imaging showed she had arthritis in her feet and problems in her left hind leg, the zoo’s veterinarians said in a statement. They noted that animals as large as giraffes can deteriorate quickly from arthritis.

They said they deployed joint supplements, pain medications, anti-inflammatories, padded flooring, diet changes and trimming April’s hoofs to try to slow the disease’s progression, but her mobility kept declining, and she started spending a lot more time lying down. Imaging in March showed “significant and progressing degeneration” of joints in her lower leg, the vets said.

“The severity of her condition has been outpacing our ability to control April’s comfort,” they said.

Statistics on giraffe life expectancy vary. A Knoxville, Tennessee, zoo giraffe that was said to be the nation’s oldest was euthanized at 31 in 2019.

April attracted a huge online audience as she carried her fourth calf in 2017 at the privately owned zoo in Harpursville, a village about 130 miles (209 kilometers) northwest of New York City. The cam became the second most-watched livestream in YouTube history, at least at the time, with more than 232 million views and 7.6 billion minutes of live watch time over several months.

This undated photo, provided by Animal Adventure Park on Thursday, Aug. 23, 2018, shows a giraffe named April at Animal Adventure Park in Harpursville, N.Y. Park officials said 20-year-old April was euthanized “due to her worsening arthritis.” (Animal Adventure Park via AP)

At least 1.2 million people watched as the male calf, eventually named Tajiri, was born—appropriately enough—in the month of April.

An online fundraising campaign pulled in more than $150,000 for the care of April, her mate and the calf. Other ventures—including a Toys ‘R’ Us sponsorship of the YouTube stream, monetized text messages and a clothing line—also brought money to the zoo. The owners said it would be used for zoo upkeep, in Africa and local children with unexpected medical expenses.

“April’s impact on animal conservation and appreciation is both immeasurable and lasting,” Patch said Friday.

But People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals criticized the zoo for turning April’s breeding into an internet event.

“The tragedy here isn’t that April died—it’s that she never knew a life without gawping spectators or livestream cameras,” said the animal-rights group’s supervising veterinarian, Dr. Heather Rally.

April had another calf, Azizi, in March 2019, with more than 300,000 people watching live on YouTube. He died at a Texas zoo last October.

Animal Adventure Park said she was put on contraceptives to retire from the breeding program following his birth.



© 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Citation:
April, the giraffe that became an online star, dies (2021, April 3)
retrieved 4 April 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-04-april-giraffe-online-star-dies.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Read More Hexbyte Glen Cove Educational Blog Repost With Backlinks —