Hexbyte Glen Cove Neanderthal children grew and were weaned similarly to modern humans thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Neanderthal children grew and were weaned similarly to modern humans

Hexbyte Glen Cove

3D Reconstruction Of The Three Neanderthal Milk Teeth Analyzed. Credit: Federico Lugli

Neanderthals behaved similarly to modern humans in raising their children, whose pace of growth was similar to Homo sapiens.

Thanks to the combination of geochemical and histological analyzes of three Neanderthal milk teeth, researchers were able to determine their pace of growth and the weaning onset time. These teeth belonged to three different Neanderthal children who have lived between 70,000 and 45,000 years ago in a small area of Northeastern Italy.

Teeth grow and register information in form of growth lines—akin to tree rings—that can be read through histological techniques. Combining such information with chemical data obtained with a laser-mass spectrometer—in particular strontium concentrations—the scientists were able to show that these Neanderthals introduced in their children’s diet at around 5-6 months of age.

Not cultural but physiological

Alessia Nava (University of Kent, UK), co-first author of the work, says, “The beginning of weaning relates to physiology rather than to cultural factors. In modern humans, in fact, the first introduction of solid food occurs at around 6 months of age when the child needs a more energetic food supply, and it is shared by very different cultures and societies. Now, we know that also Neanderthals started to wean their children when do.”

“In particular, compared to other primates,” says Federico Lugli (University of Bologna), co-first author of the work, “it is highly conceivable that the high energy demand of the growing human brain triggers the early introduction of solid foods in child diet.”

Neanderthals are our closest cousins within the human evolutionary tree. However, their pace of growth and metabolic constraints are still highly debated within the scientific literature.

Stefano Benazzi (University of Bologna), co-senior author, says, “This work’s results imply similar energy demands during early infancy and a close pace of growth between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Taken together, these factors possibly suggest that Neanderthal newborns were of similar weight to modern human neonates, pointing to a likely similar gestational history and early-life ontogeny, and potentially shorter inter-birth interval.”

Home sweet home

The three milk teeth analyzed in this study were found in a limited area of Northeastern Italy, between the current provinces of Vicenza and Verona: in the Broion Cave, in the Fumane Cave and in the De Nadale Cave. Other than their early diet and growth, scientists also collected data on the regional mobility of these Neanderthals using time-resolved strontium isotope analyzes.

“They were less mobile than previously suggested by other scholars,” says Wolfgang Müller (Goethe University Frankfurt), co-senior author. “The strontium isotope signature registered in their teeth indicates in fact that they have spent most of the time close to their home: this reflects a very modern mental template and a likely thoughtful use of local resources.”

“Despite the general cooling during the period of interest, Northeastern Italy has almost always been a place rich in food, ecological variability and caves, ultimately explaining the survival of Neanderthals in this region till about 45,000 years ago,” says Marco Peresani (University of Ferrara), co-senior author and responsible for findings from archeological excavations at sites of De Nadale and Fumane.

This research adds a new piece in the puzzling pictures of Neanderthal, a human species so close to us but still so enigmatic. Specifically, researchers exclude that the Neanderthal small population size, derived in earlier genetic analyzes, was driven by differences in weaning age and that other biocultural factors led to their demise.

This will be further investigated within the framework of the ERC project SUCCESS (The Earliest Migration of Homo sapiens in Southern Europe—Understanding the biocultural processes that define our uniqueness), led by Stefano Benazzi at the University of Bologna.



More information:
Nava et al., Early life of Neanderthals. PNAS (2020). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011765117. dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2011765117

Citation:
Neanderthal children grew and were weaned similarly to modern humans (2020, November 2)
retrieved 3 November 2020

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Hexbyte Glen Cove Super typhoon batters Philippines; 1 million in shelters thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove Super typhoon batters Philippines; 1 million in shelters

Hexbyte Glen Cove

by Jim Gomez and Joeal Calupitan

Floodwaters pass by Cagsawa ruins, a famous tourist spot in Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hit the area Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Alejandro Miraflor)

A super typhoon blew into the eastern Philippines with disastrous force Sunday, killing at least 10 people and triggering volcanic mudflows that engulfed about 150 houses before weakening as it blew away from the country, officials said.

Typhoon Goni blasted into the eastern island province of Catanduanes at dawn from the Pacific with sustained winds of 225 kilometers (140 miles) per hour and gusts of 280 kph (174 mph), threatening some provinces still recovering from a deadly typhoon that hit a week ago.

Goni barreled through densely populated regions and threatened to sideswipe Manila, which shut down its main airport, but shifted southward Sunday night and spared the capital, the government weather agency said.

At least nine people were killed in the hard-hit province of Albay, including a father and son. Villagers fled to safety as the typhoon approached, but the two apparently stayed put in the community in Guinobatan town where about 150 houses were inundated by volcanic mudflow.

“The child was found 15 kilometers (9 miles) away,” Albay Gov. Al Francis Bichara told DZMM radio, adding that the boy was swept away by mudflows and found in the next town.

He did not say whether there were any other residents trapped by the rampaging mudflows in the community and added that downed communications made it hard for people to communicate. The Office of Civil Defense reported that three Guinobatan residents were missing, but it was not immediately clear if they were from the mudflow-hit community.

An All-Terrain Vehicle is toppled by strong winds and floods from Typhoon Goni as it hits Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)

The other deaths in Albay included a villager who was pinned by a fallen tree. One person was killed in Catanduanes province.

Ricardo Jalad, who heads the government’s disaster-response agency, had feared that the typhoon could wreak major damage due to its enormous force. The Philippine weather agency reinforced those concerns, saying that within 12 hours after the typhoon’s landfall, people could face “catastrophic, violent winds and intense to torrential rainfall.”

Residents were warned of possible landslides, massive flooding, storm surges of up to 5 meters (16 feet) and powerful winds that can blow away shanties. But after hitting a mountain range and repeatedly slamming into coastal provinces, the typhoon gradually weakened, although it remained potentially deadly as it blew out into the South China Sea, forecasters said.

In this photo provided by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, debris from a damaged structure at the Naga airport in Naga city, central Philippines, as Typhoon Goni hits the country Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon has slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds, knocking down power in several towns and prompting the evacuation of about a million people in its projected path. (Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines via AP)

One of the most powerful typhoons in the world this year, Goni evoked memories of Typhoon Haiyan, which left more than 7,300 people dead or missing, flattened entire villages, swept ships inland and displaced more than 5 million in the central Philippines in November 2013.

Manila’s main airport was ordered shut down for 24 hours from Sunday to Monday, and airlines canceled dozens of international and domestic flights. Commuter train services were also suspended and a no-sail policy restriction was imposed by the coast guard due to initial fear over the typhoon’s threatening power. The military and national police, along with the coast guard, were put on full alert.

Jalad said nearly a million people were preemptively moved into emergency shelters.

In a Manila gymnasium that was turned into an emergency shelter, COVID-19 outbreaks were an added worry of displaced residents. The Philippines has had more than 383,000 cases of the virus, the second-most in Southeast Asia behind Indonesia.

  • Residents walk along floodwaters in Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hit the area Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Alejandro Miraflor)
  • Rescuers carry the body of a man that drowned in floods as Typhoon Goni hit Guinobatan, Albay province, central Philippines, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • Electrical poles are toppled due to strong winds from Typhoon Goni in Daet, Camarines Norte province, central Philippines, Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Sharalaine Robles Gonzales)
  • A man looks as floodwaters inundate an area as Typhoon Goni hit Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • This photo provided by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines shows a damaged roof at the Naga airport in Naga city, central Philippines, as Typhoon Goni hits the country, Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon has slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds, knocking down power in several towns and prompting the evacuation of about a million people in its projected path. (Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines via AP)
  • Residents walk along floodwaters in Daraga, Albay province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hit the area on Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Alejandro Miraflor)
  • Residents stay inside an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Gonistart start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • This Saturday, Oct. 31, 2020, satellite image released by NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) shows a typhoon locally known as Goni moving around the Philippines. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with “catastrophic violent winds” early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport has been ordered closed, officials said. (NASA via AP)
  • Residents occupy an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • Residents take advantage of tents provided at an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • Strong waves batter the coast of Sorsogon province, central Philippines as a typhoon locally known as Goni hits the country on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • A resident carries her dog inside an evacuation center as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni start to pour in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • Residents walk past a toppled structure as waves batter the coast of Sorsogon province, central Philippines as Typhoon Goni hits the country on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • Strong waves batter the coast of Sorsogon province, central Philippines as a typhoon locally known as Goni hits the country on Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo)
  • A rescuer carries a sick child as they evacuate residents living along a coastal community in Manila, Philippines on Sunday, Nov. 1, 2020. A super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)
  • A woman wearing a face mask to prevent the spread of the coronavirus walks as rains from a typhoon locally known as Goni starts in Manila, Philippines on Sunday Nov. 1, 2020. The super typhoon slammed into the eastern Philippines with ferocious winds early Sunday and about a million people have been evacuated in its projected path, including in the capital where the main international airport was ordered closed. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)

“We are scared—our fears are doubled,” said Jaqueline Almocera, a 44-year-old street vendor who took cover at the shelter.

The Philippines is lashed by about 20 typhoons and storms each year. It’s also located on the so-called Pacific “Ring of Fire,” where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are common, making it one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries.



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Citation:
Powerful typhoon lashes Philippines, killing at least 10 (Update) (2020, November 1)
retrieved 2 November 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-11-super-typhoon-batters-philippines-million.html

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Hexbyte Glen Cove China's most important trees are hiding in plain sight thumbnail

Hexbyte Glen Cove China’s most important trees are hiding in plain sight

Hexbyte Glen Cove

Picture of treetops Credit: Harvard Forest

In ecosystems around the globe, the danger of being a common or widespread species is the tendency to be overlooked by conservation efforts that prioritize rarity.

In forests, the most can be essential to ecosystem structure and function, which crumble with the decline of these pivotal trees, known collectively as foundation .

In an effort to identify forest foundation species and elevate their conservation status before they disappear, a unique research collaboration between Chinese and American scientists has synthesized long-term biodiversity data from 12 immense forest study plots spanning 1,500 miles, from China’s far north to its southern tropics.

Their results, published today in the journal Ecology, point to —long appreciated for their autumn foliage and the syrup that graces our tables—as potential foundation species in both China and North America.

The study comes on the heels of the latest “Red List” published by Botanic Gardens Conservation International, which showed that 36 out of the 158 maples species worldwide—nearly a quarter of all maples—are at high risk of extinction in the near future in the wild. Fourteen of those high-risk species exist only in China.

“Foundation species are the species upon which ecosystems are built and supported, just like the foundation of your house,” explains Aaron Ellison, Senior Research Fellow at the Harvard Forest and a co-author of the study. “But they can be so common that they hide in , overlooked because they lack the cachet and appeal of rarities.”

The study was led by Xiujuan Qiao, an Associate Professor at the Wuhan Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, who spent all of 2019 in residence at the Harvard Forest facilitating this global collaboration. She adds, “We should pay more attention to foundation species, identifying and protecting them before their inevitable decline.”



More information:
Xiujuan Qiao et al, Foundation Species Across a Latitudinal Gradient in China, Ecology (2020). DOI: 10.1002/ecy.3234

Citation:
China’s most important trees are hiding in plain sight (2020, October 30)
retrieved 2 November 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-10-china-important-trees-plain-sight.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provide